Thursday November 15, 2018

Consumption of fibre-rich food may cut bowel diseases

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Food which are rich in fibre may help cut diabetes and reduce the weight gain
Consumption of fibre-rich food may cut bowel diseases. wikimedia commons
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London, Dec 26, 2017: Regularly consuming a Western-type diet, which are high in fats and sugars but low in fibre, may increase the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases, weight gain, as well as diabetes, researchers say.

The findings showed that fibre — found in fruits, legumes, vegetables and whole grains — matters in a healthy diet.

These fibres resist digestion by the body but are readily eaten by bacteria in the gut. The amount of fibre in someone’s diet can influence weight gain, blood sugar, insulin sensitivity, and colon health.

The lack of fibre, on the other hand, results in bacteria encroaching into the mucus layer in the colon, and those bacteria promote low-grade inflammation bowel diseases, contributing to weight gain, and diabetes.

“Diets that lack fibre alter the bacterial composition and bacterial metabolism, which in turn causes defects to the inner mucus layer and allows bacteria to come close (encroach), something that triggers inflammation and ultimately metabolic disease,” said Gunnar C. Hansson, Professor at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.

The results, published in the journal Cell Host and Microbe, are based on twin mice studies.

In both the studies, the team fed a group of mice a diet that was extremely low in fibre.

In the first study, after just three-seven days of eating the low-fibre diet, the mice developed problems with the protective mucus layer in the colon. This mucus layer became more penetrable and bacteria encroached upon the epithelial cells of the colon.

In the second study, the colons of mice on the low-fibre diet shrank significantly in thickness and they developed unhealthy imbalances of different gut bacteria strains.

“These findings show the importance of the inner mucus layer in separating bacteria and human host. It nicely illustrates how dynamic and quickly this responds to diet and bacterial alterations,” Hansson explained. (IANS)

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Night Owls with Prediabetes tend to Gain Unhealthy Weight

Evening preference was directly associated with higher BMI in this group, the researchers noted

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Prediabetic night owls
Prediabetic night owls may gain unhealthy weight. Pixabay

People with prediabetes who are more active and alert later in the day — those who have an evening preference — may have higher body mass index (BMI), a new study has found.

The findings, published in the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology, also suggested that higher BMI among people with evening preference is related to lack of sufficient sleep.

“People can have more regular bedtimes and aim to have more sleep, which may help reduce BMI and the potential development of diabetes in this high-risk group,” said lead author Sirimon Reutrakul from the University of Illinois at Chicago in the US.

Prediabetes is a condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be Type-2 diabetes.

According to the researchers, without modifications to diet and exercise, patients with prediabetes have a very high risk of developing Type-2 diabetes.

For the study, the research team involved 2,133 participants with prediabetes.

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

Participants who scored high in “morningness” answered questions indicating that they preferred to wake up earlier, have activities earlier, and felt more alert earlier in the day were compared with those who scored high on “eveningness”.

Sleep duration and timing were obtained using a questionnaire and the extent of social jet lag was evaluated for each participant.

The average age of the participants was 64 years old, and average sleep duration was about seven hours per night.

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The researchers found that for participants younger than 60 years of age, higher levels of social jet lag were associated with a higher BMI.

Among participants older than 60 years old, those with more evening preference had higher BMIs and this effect was partly due to having insufficient sleep but not social jet lag.

Evening preference was directly associated with higher BMI in this group, the researchers noted. (IANS)