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BY D.C. PATHAK
Advent of the Age of Information, attributed to the success of the IT revolution, was defined by an instant connectivity across geographical boundaries that created a new kind of economic globalisation where business would be conducted with unprecedented speed. The new ‘knowledge economy’ therefore, mandated that all relevant information needed for decision-making had to be quickly accessed and acted upon for achieving a competitive advantage.
Time became the new resource — besides money and manpower — that was not to be wasted. It is in this backdrop that the great learning from the experience of lockdown for the coronavirus pandemic, both for nations and individuals, is that new ways would have to be found to use the enormous quantity of surplus etime’ available with family units, for the cause of national productivity. The lockdown left sections of people — whose concept of eleisure’ mostly spun around empty luxuries — cribbing that they were not able to ewhile away time’. On the other hand, it saw countless families with only one bread earner wondering how to monetise the residuary time of the family in an environ of joblessness.
There is little evidence that even the well-off lot generally valued their solitude as an opportunity of enhancing their personal growth or increasing their power of imagination to their advantage using time as a valuable commodity. Incidentally, it is Albert Einstein who had famously said, “Imagination is more important than knowledge” suggesting how imagination aided the ability to read a deeper meaning into the facts presented and thus make a quicker advancement.
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The prohibitions of the pandemic have highlighted the importance of ework from home’ but only for the people who had certain kinds of jobs — mostly IT related. The need for Indian businesses is to explore a new work methodology in which the huge number of semi-skilled hands available in the country — practically in every home — are utilised for enhancing productivity by drawing them into esupply chains’ for goods and services — running across the length and breadth of the country. A range of business activity from ehome kitchens’ to domestic stitching of emasks’ did crop up during the lockdown but what is going to be required in the short and medium term ahead is an army of edelivery hands’ acting — without having to move much — as the local links in these supply chains.
The indigenous economy of India can revive itself through innovative ideas on how to use labour intensive situations without giving up on technology-driven processes and utilise the resource of etime’ available at the hands of even unskilled people for increasing production. This should be done without detracting from the promise that India holds, of providing top-grade technologists and technology- savvy eknowledge workers’ to international businesses across the spectrum. In the Indian context, the mega tie-up between Facebook-WhatsApp and Reliance JIO may prove to be a game changer providing a big boost to the country’s economy.
In the present scenario, district administration can list out men and women ready to take up this kind of informal employment and make them available to businesses on request. This is in a way a revival of the elocal employment bureaus’ helping the businesses big and small — in a new version of private-public partnership — and giving stability to income from work. The employing companies could be given tax relief for engaging the listed hands. The challenge for India is both in the handling of corona victims in quarantine camps and hospitals and finding ways and means of rebuilding the economy in staggered steps. The strategy has to be of keeping up productivity without demanding too much of human emovement’ and avoiding ecrowding’ of the assembly lines. It is now coming out that in spite of the law against child labour a very large number of children employed by petty factory owners had been abandoned in their confinement because of the lockdown. District level handling of the pandemic alone can take care of this tragedy of children — arranging food and shelter for them was the immediate requirement. The district magistrates should have confirmed by now that all this had been done.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s decisive move of getting the people to follow a 40-day lockdown has been globally appreciated as the most effective policy of saving the country from the huge disaster that corona would have inflicted on it. It gave the government time to build a certain capacity to handle emedical quarantine’ and ehospitalisation’ while it checked the rise of fresh infections that could have overwhelmed India’s health care system. However, in India — unlike in any other country — the formidable test of democratic governance was in ensuring that while enforcing eequality of restrictions’ in an eunequal society’, it did not lose sight of the fact that the haves and the have-nots differed widely in their capacity to face the lockdown. The latter — comprising workers of the unorganised sector, daily wage earners and the migrant labour who lost their jobs — needed an uninterrupted supply of food for their families on an assurance from the government, beyond what philanthropic bodies could do, till such time as some work came their way. This is a long haul. It is clear that the lockdown required micro-management of public affairs that could be achieved only at the district level where this country, fortunately, still had the best organised machinery of the government closest to the people.
In fact, for quite some time to come, the district will have to become the pivot of governance from where an accurate assessment of the weekly supply of grains etc from government godowns for running public kitchens at multiple fixed points — one in each panchayat or ward — could be obtained and also an idea had of the scale of medical and health care management required there. Successful delivery of food to clusters of the poor and the weak including the migrant labour would be the hallmark of this management. So long as the migrants are in the jurisdiction of a district, the local administration was squarely responsible for their food and shelter. Pending a decision of the government about shifting them in safe conditions to their village homes, the district authorities concerned were accountable for their well being. There should have been a clarity about this from the first day of the lockdown. The good news is that a lot is already happening on these lines — with people of towns and villages enthusiastically doing their bit in helping the administration to feed the stricken individuals. The supply of essential commodities had been maintained without breaks which is a creditable achievement.
A policy favouring an appropriate relaxation of the lockdown after balancing emobility’ with full eawareness’ of how to avoid risk, seems to be in the making and this is good. It would be a great pity if a lack of Centre-state equation came in the way of a united approach on corona crisis management that called for a decentralised way of handling it. New infrastructure for medical quarantine and hospital facilities with fleets of ambulances, for instance, has to be carried to the districts. There are many cases of local hospitals not attending to corona suspects for lack of facilities. This investment required urgently — on a different scale in different regions — would serve a long range purpose and act as a catalyst for employment and economic growth.
Corona pandemic was being fought directly under the leadership of the Centre and the challenge, as already mentioned, is of securing the right level of coordination between the central and state administrations for taking the focus of handling the crisis closer to the ground. The district administration should be provided with funds, manpower and supplies to free the less privileged of any food worries — it should be remembered that memories at the mass level tend to last long. The corruption-ridden public distribution system did show up its ugly side at many places because of inadequate administrative oversight. No needy person should be returned empty handed from a ration supply centre. That official machinery could take to senseless ways was illustrated by the practice reported some years ago from a northern state in which a measure of wheat grain was given to children as a substitute for a mid-day meal.
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In a public crisis officials should exercise discretion in a matter like grant of help without production of a ration card in some cases. India has, on the whole, done a marvellous job of dampening the Corona attack with an effective lockdown. Its long range success is going to be determined by the efficiency of the local authorities in taking care of the distressed lot on the ground — till they got back to work. There should be enough publicity through authentic messaging that a corona suspect was not to be shunned but put under medical supervision — grave social disruptions can erupt otherwise. In the recent interaction of Prime Minister Modi with panchayat chiefs, the participant from Kashmir made a brilliant suggestion — he gave the call esuspect but respect’ for the handling of corona cases.
The indigenous economy of India will revive at a faster pace as people will like to feel eself econtained’ and eself-reliant’ in their neighbourhoods, townships and work zones. They would have a new awareness of a cleaner, safer and less-demanding lifestyle in which one stayed connected without being physically close to one’s near and dear ones — at least for the time being.
Also Read- Life After Lockdown- A New World
The corona lockdown has trained Indians, rich and poor, on how to keep out of the way of this einvisible’ enemy through esocial distancing’ while getting back to work and let the virus degrade and fade away on its own. In times to come, India hopefully will be the manufacturing hub of the world and a prime tourist attraction as well — precisely because it handled the pandemic well. The route to that destination is a determined bid to become eself reliant’ by opting for our own products in the civilian sector and to the extent possible in the area of defence as well. A country surplus in food grains, plentiful in manpower, blessed with a large industrial base, having a huge national transport infrastructure and on top of the ladder in applied IT, can reset its economic agenda and steadily make up for the pushback caused by the corona pandemic. Corona prohibition was a top-down exercise. Economic recovery will be a bottom up phenomenon which suits India. (IANS)
Great historic events that have shaped the world and changed the outlines of countries are often not recorded in memory, or so we think. Wars made sure to destroy evidence and heritage, and the ones who survived told the tale of what really happened. Folklore, albeit through oral tradition kept alive many such stories, hidden in verse, limericks, and rhymes.
Ringa-ringa-roses, a common playtime rhyme among children across the world, is an example of folklore that has survived for many centuries. It tells the story of the The Great Plague of London which ravaged the city between 1665-1666.
The Plague broke out from improper disposal of garbage and poor sewage conditions. Fleas from the rats that lived in the sewers spread the disease that killed more than half of London's population. Many people fled from their homes as there was no medicine available for those who were infected.
Beak-shaped masks worn during the Great Plague of London Image source: wikimedia commons
It was around this time that masks began to be invented. The first masks were shaped like beaks, and were worn not to protect the wearer from the disease, but to the prevent them from being able to smell the decay and death around them, which they called 'miasma'. The beaks were filled with floral herbs that allowed doctors and nurses to tend to the sick without being reviled from the smell.
Children are often seen forming circles by holding hands and reciting loudly,
Pockets full of posies
We all fall down"
An illustration of the Great Plague of London, 1665 Image source: wikimedia commons
When the last line is sung, they break the circle and fall down. The roses and posies are believed to be the preferred fragrances inside the masks, and a single sneeze (a-tishoo) was enough to infect the one who was exposed to the disease. Consequently, they fell down, ill, and later died.
An alternative version of this rhyme is sung about the fall of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath of World War II. The roses and posies are interchanged with geranium and uranium, to symbolise what was used in the atomic bomb. But this version is not as famous the original.
Keywords: Rhymes, Ringa-ringa-roses, Great Plague of London, WWII, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Folklore
In modern times, many social movements aim to bring reform to the society we live in, on the basis of certain existing patterns. Patriarchy is something that many aim to cleanse our cultures of, to usher in the era of social and gender equality. Despite all these so-called movements, in southern India, certain societies that patronise matriarchy have existed since before India's independence. The Nairs and Ezhavas of Kerala, and Bunts and Billavas of Karnataka are matrilineal societies that continue to thrive in a patriarchal country.
Kerala remains separate from the rest of India in many ways. Be it literacy policy, form of government, or cultural practices, this state does not always conform to the ideal that India is known for. Even so with their social structure. Certain tribes have remained matrilineal, where the decision-making power rests with the eldest female of the family.
The Nairs and Ezhavas of Kerala, and Bunts and Billavas of Karnataka are matrilineal societies that continue to thrive in a patriarchal country. Image source: wikimedia commons
A male member, who is the close confidante of the matriarch is chosen. He plays a crucial role in representing the male members of his family, and his opinion is highly valued. He is called karavanan. The men reside in separate rooms or in separate houses, and do not interfere in the upbringing of children. Property is also passed down along the lineage of the eldest female. Among the Nairs, matriarchy is more prominently adhered to than the Ezhavas, who have some patrilocal connections.
In Karnataka, the Bunts and Billavas belong to the Tuluva ethnic group. They are also a predominantly matriarchal society, founded on the belief in a legend. Their matrilineal descent is known as Aliyasantana.
The story is told of a demon who threatened to destroy a kingdom if the king did not sacrifice his sons, but the king's sister comes forward to offer her children in sacrifice for the sake of the kingdom. The demon is touched and does not destroy the city. Since then, the kingdom, or the property is inherited through female lineage.
In Karnataka, the Bunts and Billavas belong to the Tuluva ethnic group. They are also a predominantly matriarchal society, founded on the belief in a legend. Image source: wikimedia commons
In the recent past, many of these matriarchal societies have been reduced to matrilineal societies by certain governmental laws. They fall under the patriarchal scheme of the rest of the state but have reserved the right to pass on property and heritage through the female line. In the North east of India, matriarchal dominance is far more resilient than the south.
Keywords: Bunts, Billava, Nair, Ezhava, Aliyasantana, Matrilineal, South India, Karnataka, Kerala
Apple inc. Is an American multinational tech firm specialized in consumer electronics, computer programs, and internet services founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in 1976 to manufacture Wozniak's Apple iComputer. It is the world's top tech company in turnover (totaling $274.5 billion in 2020) and its most valuable corporation. Apple is the fourth-largest PC seller by unit sales and the fourth-largest smartphone manufacturer in the world.
Apple has revealed a slew of new products at a special launch event that has been long-awaited. On the day of the live event, Apple announced the iPad mini, Apple Watch Series 7, iPhone 13 mini, and iPhone 13, as well as the iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max.
Apple has revealed a slew of new products at a special launch event that has been long-awaited. | Photo by Daniel Romero on Unsplash
In the first major product announcement during the event, Apple introduced the newest edition of the iPad and a 5G-capable iPad Mini.
iPad: The 10.2-inch iPad is equipped with a solid A13 processor that delivers 20 percent quicker performance than the preceding version. According to Apple, it is now three times faster than a Chromebook. A new 12MP ultra-wide camera with Center Stage, which utilizes machine learning to optimize the front-facing camera during FaceTime video chats, as well as more incredible accessory support, including compatibility with the first-generation Apple Pencil, are among the new features. For 64GB of storage, the iPad costs $329.
iPad Mini: In addition to reduced borders and more rounded edges, the 8.3-inch iPad mini also has improved front and back cameras. A liquid retina display, USB-C compatibility, magnetic support for the Apple Pencil, an enhanced speaker system, and new hues such as pink and purple are all features of the new Apple iPad Mini. The starting price is $499.
In the first major product announcement during the event, Apple introduced the newest edition of the iPad and a 5G-capable iPad Mini. | Photo by Leone Venter on Unsplash
The other major unveiled products include:
iPhone 13 and other variants: The iPhone 13 range is almost identical to the iPhone 12 lineup, with a 5.4-inch iPhone 13 Mini, a 6.1-inch iPhone 13, a 6.1-inch iPhone 13 Pro, and a 6.7-inch iPhone 13 Pro Max. It was also revealed that the Watch Series 7 has a smaller "S7" processor, which may allow for a bigger battery or other components to be housed in a smaller footprint. The gadgets have a revolutionary design that includes a dual-camera system, placed diagonally. Apple's iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 mini have longer-lasting batteries than the previous generation of devices. In addition, Apple claims that the iPhone 13 will have a battery life that is 2.5 hours longer than the iPhone 12, and the iPhone 13 mini will have a battery life that is 1.5 hours longer. A more energy-efficient display, an upgraded 5G chip, and functionality called "Cinematic Mode," similar to the famous Portrait mode function but is only available for movies, are among the other enhancements. The A15 Bionic chip present in the iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 mini is also used in the 6.1-inch iPhone 13 Pro and 6.7-inch iPhone 13 Pro Max, also 6.1-inch devices. However, it also has a five-core CPU, which promises graphics that are 50% quicker than previous models. Other notable features of the Pro devices include a brilliant Super Retna XDR display with a higher refresh rate and long-lasting battery life. Now, for the price, it will start at $699 for the iPhone 13 mini with 128 GB of storage, $799 for the iPhone 13 with 128 GB of storage, and the Pro and Pro Max have starting prices of $999 $1,099, respectively.
Apple Watch Series 7: The new Apple Watch Series 7, which is smaller and has a larger screen than its previous model, was introduced by Apple on Wednesday. There is a 20% increase in screen size over Series 6 on the new watch. A complete keyboard that you can touch or slide to write out text messages can show 50% more text. It starts at $399.
Keywords: Apple, iPad, iPad Mini, iPhone 13, iPhone 13 pro, iPhone 13 Pro Max, iPhone Mini, Apple event 2021