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Gleanings from Hindu scriptures: Part 14
Karma, or actions, are central to human life. There does not pass a moment when people are not involved in one or the other action. Karma does not merely refer to bodily movements, but also to our speech and thoughts. After all, even speech and thoughts involve movements and vibrations with respect to sound and mind.
Thus, Karma sustains life. But, not all actions enrich life. Some lead to upliftment and happiness while others lead to pain and sorrow. Hindu scriptures call these uplifting actions as ‘Dharma’ because they uphold life, impart happiness, and establish harmony. The depreciating actions that lead to pain, suffering, and disharmony are termed as ‘Adharma’, or that which is opposite of Dharma.
The performance of Dharmic actions helps a person fulfill his/her desires without causing disharmony or suffering to others, and thus, leads to spiritual elevation. On the other hand, the fulfillment of one’s desires through Adharmic actions without a care for the society, will result in the society’s harm, and will cause sorrow to the performer. Thus, the scriptures say, Dharma must always be practiced and Adharma avoided.
Hindu scriptures have enunciated at various places which actions are to be performed and which to be avoided. It must be kept in mind that actions refer to not just bodily actions, but also to those performed through speech and thoughts. Manu Smriti, for instance, classified ten actions under Adharma: 3 bodily actions, 3 mental actions, and 4 actions committed by speech.
In this installment, let us look into three kinds of bodily actions that are considered as ‘Adharma’ and hence should be avoided. Manu Smriti (12. 7) says:
adattAnAmupAdAnam hiMsA chaiva vidhAnataH |
paraDharOpasEvA cha shArIram trividham smritam ||
Meaning: Taking what has not been given, injuring (others) without the sanction of the scriptures, and holding intercourse with another man’s wife, are declared to be the three kinds of (adharmic) bodily action.
Each of these terms covers a huge variety of actions. For example, the term ‘adattanaamupaadaanam’ not only refers to act of stealing but also to all forms of corruption and unethical wealth accumulation.
Cheating people by fooling them, extorting people using force, stealing, dacoity, corruption, and bribery, every action that results in unethical accumulation of wealth are all considered as Adharmic actions.
The gist of the tenet is that a person must earn his wealth and luxuries through virtuous Dharmic means by hard work and honesty. All other means of gaining wealth have been considered as Adharma.
The second tenet calls ‘Himsa’, or injury which is not sanctioned in the scriptures, as Adharma. It is interesting to note that the Smriti is not asking for adherence to absolute non-violence or pacifism, but only rejects those acts of violence which are not according to the scriptures.
So, what does “according to scriptures” mean? Hindu scriptures permit injury in certain situations like the performance of Yajna, during cooking, in self-defense, during wars, etc.
In these circumstances, an injury is inevitable. Yajnas are performed for the material and spiritual welfare of the Universe, wars are fought to protect one’s nation and citizens, while cooking is necessary to sustain life. Ahimsa, as an absolute tenet is only applicable to Sannyasins (renunciates) who have renounced the Universe. For all others, Himsa (or injury) is permitted only in a few unavoidable circumstances. Apart from that, any violence committed is considered as Adharma.
Thus, killing or hurting people or animals for any reason other than self-defense or during the war is Adharma. Kidnapping, blackmailing, human trafficking, animal trafficking, forcing women into prostitution, and all related crimes are Adharma. Human and animal rights are all addressed by this tenet.
The third tenet of Adharma is having a physical relationship with another person’s spouse, and thus addresses adultery. The reason adultery has been considered as Adharma is that it involves cheating. Just as one must not steal another person’s wealth, one must also not violate another person’s wife. Marriage is a deep conjugal bond and this bond is violated when there is adultery.
Further, the tenet not only refers to the issues of willful adultery but also to cases wherein women are harassed or raped even after the perpetrator knows that she is not interested in him or that she is already married. The tenet reminds men to keep their actions in restraint so that women can live their life independently, without fear of harassment.
Hence, the Manu Smriti calls stealing, violence, and violating others’ wives as three of the heinous Adharmic actions that should be avoided. Other actions can also be Adharmic, but the verse highlights three important aspects of human actions where they err the most.
One may desire momentary pleasure, or wealth by committing acts of Adharma. However, the pleasure will not last long. Ultimately, one will invariably end up in pain and sorrow that is proportional to the magnitude of the Adharma committed, and the magnitude of suffering caused to others. Thus, the scriptures repeatedly advise people to practice the path of Dharma and shun Adharma.
More in this segment:
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 1
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 2
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 3
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 4
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 5
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 6
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 7
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 8
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 9
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 10
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 11
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 12
The Centre will launch a pilot project on the use of indigenously manufactured drones for delivering medicines in the undulating landscape of Jammu and surrounding areas from Saturday with a focus on vaccines delivery initially. "This is going to be a pilot project for the area. The drone is developed and manufactured entirely by our scientists," Union Minister for Science & Technology, Dr Jitendra Singh told mediapersons. Singh said he himself will be launching the project at Jammu.
The drone is developed by the scientists at Bengaluru's National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), a constituent of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), an autonomous Society that is headed by the Prime Minister. For now, the delivery would be limited to Covid vaccines and once successful, it would be expanded to be used for regular delivery of medicines in the remote, hilly areas.
The drone is developed by the scientists at Bengaluru's National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL). | Photo by Jason Blackeye on Unsplash
Jammu and surrounding areas are sensitive in terms of the strategic importance. Some months ago, there was an attack on an Army installation using drones. Will the 'drones for vaccines' be permitted in such a case? Allaying fears, a top official from the Ministry of S&T said, "The drones would be deployed by authorised agencies such as hospitals, not anybody can use it, nor would any random person be permitted to use it."
NAL has called the drone as 'Octacopter' and it can fly at an operational altitude of 500 m AGL and at maximum flying speed of 36 kmph. It can be used for a variety of BVLOS applications for last mile delivery like medicines, vaccines, food, postal packets, Human organs (such as heart for heart transplantation) etc. NAL Octacopter is integrated with a powerful on-board embedded computer and latest generation sensors for versatile applications like agricultural pesticide spraying, crop monitoring, mining survey, magnetic geo survey mapping etc., S&T officials had said. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Jammu, Vaccines, Medicines, Deliver, Drones, Centre
Bollywood actor Abhishek Bachchan shares how he feels when people compare him with his father Amitabh Bachchan on the singing reality show 'Sa Re Ga Ma Pa'. He also requests contestant Rajshree Bag to sing a track 'Bahon Mein Chale Aao' featuring his mother Jaya Bachchan.
Abhishek said after looking at the performance of Rajshree, who is often compared with Lata Mangeshkar on the show, that she reminds him of being compared with his father. "Rajshree, whenever I have got the chance to watch the show, I've seen people compare you to Lata didi. It actually reminded me about how people compare me with my father and ask me how I feel about it."
According to him Amitabh Bachchan is a great actor in the industry and this is what he says to everyone making these comparisons. "My answer to them is that there's no greater actor in this film industry than Amitabh Bachchan and if I'm being compared to him, I am sure I must have done something good."
"Similarly, your voice has a different kind of magic like Lata ji and that's why people are comparing your voice with her. I feel you should always take this as a compliment," he concluded. 'Sa Re Ga Ma Pa' airs on Saturday and Sunday on Zee TV. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Abhishek Bachchan, Amitabh Bachchan, reality show, Sa Re Ga Ma Pa, Rajshree Bag
Winters in India have always beckoned for that hot, steaming bowl of tomato and pepper rasam or the mellow, millet based Raab. Certain dishes like sarson ka saag, undhiyu, nimona pulao are winter specialites in the country. Seasonal food has always been an Indian speciality -- we switch our choice in fruits, vegetables, sometimes even grains with the onset of different season. The preference of using specific ingredients during certain climates is visible in our sweets as well. It's common to find local and traditional delicacies made of jaggery, instead of sugar during the winters. Case in point -- the Nolen Gur Rasgulla, a speciality made in Odisha and West Bengal between November to February.
Celebrity chef, Sanjeev Kapoor, strongly advocates this need of eating seasonal produce. He says, "The beauty of our food is in our seasonal usage of fruits and vegetables. If you realise, Gajar ka halwa is made aplenty during winters as this is the season when beautiful red carrots hit the market or mango pickle is made during summer, thanks to its availability. Despite people and sometimes, even me, suggesting that we should eat fresh as well as seasonal fruits and vegetables, we do not know what chemicals are sprayed on them to keep them safe while they are growing. When this produce hits the market, there isn't a certifying agency like the FSSAI that will help people understand what vegetables and fruits are free of pesticides and germs and which ones don't. Hence, the onus lies on us to make them safe for consumption. ITC's Nimwash is a good solution."
When it comes to winters, the Chef recommends eating these fruit and vegetables:
* Purple Mogri -- Mogri or Radish pods are not a common sight throughout the country. But you can spot them during the winters in local markets in northern India where women pick them up to make raitas, curries and stir fries. Rich in magnesium, calcium and copper, the vegetable is known to aid people from digestive problems.
Mogri or Radish pods are not a common sight throughout the country, but you can spot them during the winters | Pixabay
* Sweet Potato -- A re-discovered favourite, Sweet potatoes have created a space for itself in the millennial kitchen. With its diverse addition in burgers, chips and even chat, the root vegetable is filled with nutrients such as fibres and vitamins.
Sweet potatoes have created a space for itself in the millennial kitchen. | Wikimedia Commons
* Avarekalu -- Called Hyacinth beans in English, Avarekalu is a winter speciality in the south that is added to sambhar, saagu, rotis, etc. Bangalore is famed for its Averakalu mela during the winter months, where you can find these beans in dosas, Pani puri and even Jalebis! Thronged by crowds from all over the city, the food fest is a gourmand's delight.
Called Hyacinth beans in English, Avarekalu is a winter speciality in the south that is added to sambhar, saagu, rotis, etc. | Wikimedia Commons
* Amla -- The Indian gooseberry is a common winter fruit found through the country. High in Vitamin C, it is known to be immunity building and extremely beneficial for the skin and hair. There are multiple ways to eat Amla -- it is pickled, made into a fruit preserve called as Murraba or even eaten by sprinkling salt over it.
The Indian gooseberry is a common winter fruit found through the country. | Pixabay
(Article originally published on IANSlife) (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: winter, Sanjeev Kapoor, chef, Indian gooseberry, Sweet Potato, Radish pods