Thursday April 2, 2020

Deficiency of Zinc May up Hypertension

Understanding the specific mechanisms by which zinc deficiency contributes to blood pressure dysregulation may have an important effect on the treatment of hypertension in chronic disease settings, the team noted

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'3-in-1' hypertension pill offers better success: Study
'3-in-1' hypertension pill offers better success: Study. Flickr

Lower-than-normal levels of zinc — a nutrient that helps the immune system fight off invading bacteria and viruses — may contribute to hypertension, finds a new study on mice.

The study, from the Wright State University in the US, demonstrated that the way in which the kidneys either excrete sodium into the urine or reabsorb it into the body — specifically through a pathway called the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) — also plays a role in controlling high blood pressure.

Zinc deficiency is common in people with illnesses such as Type-2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease.

It also showed that less sodium in the urine typically corresponds with higher blood pressure.

Zinc may help regulate proteins that in turn regulate the NCC, the study suggested.

For the study, researchers compared male mice with zinc deficiency to healthy controls with normal zinc levels.

Representational image. Pixabay

The results, published in the American Journal of Physiology — Renal Physiology, showed that zinc-deficient mice developed high blood pressure and a corresponding decrease in urinary sodium excretion.

However, the control group did not experience the same changes.

A small group of the zinc-deficient mice were fed a zinc-rich diet partway. Once the animals’ zinc reached adequate levels, blood pressure began to drop and urinary sodium levels increased.

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“These significant findings demonstrate that enhanced renal (sodium) re-absorption plays a critical role in (zinc-deficiency)-induced hypertension,” said Clintoria R. Williams, a researcher from the varsity.

Understanding the specific mechanisms by which zinc deficiency contributes to blood pressure dysregulation may have an important effect on the treatment of hypertension in chronic disease settings, the team noted. (IANS)

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People with Damaged Livers Can Continue Medication for Diabetes

Even damaged livers can handle medicines for diabetes, BP

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Diabetes
People with diabetes, hypertension and depression might be able to continue taking life saving medications in small doses even while they heal from drug-induced liver injuries. Pixabay

People with diabetes, hypertension and depression might be able to continue taking life saving medications in small doses even while they heal from drug-induced liver injuries, suggests new research.

The findings, published in the journal Drug Metabolism and Disposition, suggests that doctors need not always make patients with drug-induced liver injury stop taking all their medications until the liver healed.

Drug-induced liver injury — when a person accidentally harms their liver by taking medications prescribed by a doctor (or occasionally over the counter drugs) — affects about almost 1 million people globally. “Doctors give patients drugs to treat diseases. No one wants their liver damaged, but it happens all the time,” said Xiaobo Zhong from the University of Connecticut in the US.

When a person takes a medication by mouth, it goes into their stomach and then to the intestines, where it is absorbed into the blood. This blood, in turn, passes first through the liver before reaching the rest of the body. The liver has enzymes that break down medicines.

But different people naturally have more or less of these enzymes. Sometimes, what could be a safe and effective dose in one person is too much for someone else who has different enzyme levels. This is why some individuals are more vulnerable to liver damage, even when taking drugs just as a doctor prescribed.

Diabetes
If patients have chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, or depression, their conditions can run out of control if they do not take their medicines. Pixabay

There is no standard guidance for doctors when a patient gets drug-induced liver damage. Often times they tell the person to stop taking all medications immediately and wait for their liver to recover. But that can take weeks or months.

“But if patients have chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, or depression, their conditions can run out of control,” if they stop taking the medications, Zhong said. And that can be life threatening.

The researchers tested whether mice whose livers had been damaged by acetaminophen (the active ingredient in Tylenol) had lower levels of drug metabolising enzymes, called cytochrome P450 enzymes.

The researchers investigated whether mice with drug-induced liver damage can safely take medications for diabetes, hypertension and depression. It looks like they can, as long as the doses are much smaller than normal, said the study.

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Because the damaged liver does not break down the medications as efficiently, they are just as effective at these lower doses. The team still has to test whether these results hold in humans. (IANS)