Monday March 25, 2019

Study: Depression Can Be Cut by Ketamine

Ketamine, the drug can be helpful to cut off depression and suicidality

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A man in depression. Pixabay

Recreational drug Ketamine is likely to have fast-acting benefits in treating symptoms of depression as well as reducing suicidal thoughts, say researchers, including one of an Indian-origin.

The findings of the trial, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, showed use of Ketamine, also licensed as an anaesthetic, through a nasal spray, led to significant improvements in depressive symptoms and reduction in suicidal thoughts in the first 24 hours.

A woman in depression.
A woman suffering from depression.

Esketamine could be an important treatment to bridge the gap as it can help in the rapid treatment compared to the delayed effects of most common antidepressants, which take four to six weeks to become fully effective, said Jaskaran B. Singh, from the Janssen Research & Development in San Diego, US.

The results support nasal spray esketamine as a possible effective rapid treatment for depressive symptoms in patients assessed to be at imminent risk for suicide, the researchers noted.

For the study, a small group of participants randomly assigned to one of two groups – either receiving esketamine or placebo twice a week for four weeks, and found a significant improvement in depression scores and decreased suicidal ideation in the esketamine group compared to the placebo group at four hours and at 24 hours.

Also Read: Depression Can Negatively Impact Heart Patients

However, at 25 days, the effects had levelled out.

While there esketamine dependence or misuse was not observed in the trial, the researchers suggested for effective controls on the distribution and use of ketamine.

They argued that steps to control the use of ketamine would not be aimed at preventing its use for beneficial purposes but would allow for treatment to “continue to be available to those with need, while the population that is at-risk for abuse is protected from an epidemic of misuse.”  IANS

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Childhood Maltreatment Strongest Risk Factor for Depression in Adulthood: Lancet

The findings are to develop or improve risk-adapted interventions for people susceptible to a worse long-term clinical outcome

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Fourteen had a remission period of less than two months and could therefore be regarded as having chronic depression. Pixabay

Facing trauma in childhood can significantly change the structure of the brain, which may result in severe depression which could even be recurrent in adulthood, say researchers.

The results from MRI scan images suggest that both childhood maltreatment and recurring depression are associated with similar reductions in the surface area of the insular cortex, part of the brain that regulates emotion and self-awareness.

This reduction in the brain could make a future relapse more likely, said the study, published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal, which found childhood maltreatment one of the strongest risk factors for major depression in adulthood.

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Depression is among the leading causes of disability in the U.S. and is being closely monitored by health authorities amid rising suicides nationwide. Pixabay

“Given the impact of the insular cortex on brain functions such as emotional awareness, it’s possible that the changes we saw make patients less responsive to conventional treatments,” said lead researcher Nils Opel from the University of Munster in Germany.

The study included 110 patients aged 18 to 60 years. Of the 75 patients who experienced a relapse, 48 had experienced one additional episode, seven reported two episodes, and six experienced three episodes.

Fourteen had a remission period of less than two months and could therefore be regarded as having chronic depression.

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This reduction in the brain could make a future relapse more likely, said the study, published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal. Pixabay

ALSO READ: 4 Indian-American Teenagers Awarded for Inventions in Environmental Issues

The findings are to develop or improve risk-adapted interventions for people susceptible to a worse long-term clinical outcome.

Future psychiatric research should therefore explore how the findings could be translated into special attention, care and treatment that could improve patient outcomes, the study noted. (IANS)