Sunday September 22, 2019

DNA Sustains More Damage and Gets Fixed Less Often When Blood Sugar Levels are High

These cancers include ovarian, breast, kidney and others

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DNA, Blood, Sugar
"It's been known for a long time that people with diabetes have as much as a 2.5-fold increased risk for certain cancers," said John Termini from City of Hope, a research and treatment center for cancer and diabetes in the US. Pixabay

Researchers have found that DNA sustains more damage and gets fixed less often when blood sugar levels are high compared to when blood sugar is at a normal, healthy level, thereby increasing one’s cancer risk.

“It’s been known for a long time that people with diabetes have as much as a 2.5-fold increased risk for certain cancers,” said John Termini from City of Hope, a research and treatment center for cancer and diabetes in the US.

These cancers include ovarian, breast, kidney and others. But why people with Type-1 or Type-2 diabetes run higher risk of these cancers has been a mystery for a long time.

The new findings could offer a possible explanation for this double whammy.

DNA, Blood, Sugar
Researchers have found that DNA sustains more damage and gets fixed less often when blood sugar levels are high compared to when blood sugar is at a normal, healthy level, thereby increasing one’s cancer risk. Pixabay

Termini wondered if the elevated blood glucose levels seen in diabetes could harm DNA, making the genome unstable, which could lead to cancer.

So Termini and colleagues looked for a specific type of damage in the form of chemically modified DNA bases, known as adducts, in tissue culture and rodent models of diabetes.

Indeed, they found a DNA adduct, called N2-(1-carboxyethyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine, or CEdG, that occurred more frequently in the diabetic models than in normal cells or mice.

What’s more, high glucose levels interfered with the cells’ process for fixing it.

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“Exposure to high glucose levels leads to both DNA adducts and the suppression of their repair, which in combination could cause genome instability and cancer,” Termini said.

Termini and colleagues have recently completed a clinical study that measured the levels of CEdG, as well as its counterpart in RNA (CEG), in people with Type-2 diabetes.

As in mice, people with diabetes had significantly higher levels of both CEdG and CEG than people without the disease.

The findings are scheduled to be presented at the American Chemical Society (ACS) Fall 2019 National Meeting and Exposition being held in San Diego, California, from August 25-29. (IANS)

Next Story

DNA Changes May Trigger Cancer Along with Other Age-related Diseases

Experts say they will now explore the link between these DNA changes and biological ageing acceleration

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Scientists have found a way of mapping out human DNA.
Scientists have found a way of mapping out human DNA.
DNA changes throughout a person’s life can significantly increase their susceptibility to heart conditions and other age-related diseases, says a research led by an Indian-origin scientist.
Such alterations — known as somatic mutations — can impact the way blood stem cells work and are associated with blood cancers and other conditions, said scientists from the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow.
These somatic mutations and the associated diseases they cause may accelerate a person’s biological age — how old their body appears — faster than their chronological age.
“Previously, somatic mutations have largely been studied in cancer. Our findings suggest they play a role in other diseases, which will change the way we study disease risk,” said Dr Tamir Chandra, Group Leader at the University of Edinburgh’s MRC Human Genetics Unit.
The study, published in the journal Current Biology, examined these changes and their potential effects in more than 1,000 older people from the Lothian Birth Cohorts (LBCs), born in 1921 and 1936.
Cancer
Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay
The LBCs are a group of people – now in their 80s and 90s – who sat intelligence tests as 11-year olds. They are some of the most-intensively studied research participants in the world.
Scientists studied people where the biological and chronological age was separated by a large gap.
They found the participants with somatic mutations – around six per cent – had a biological age almost four years older than those with no alterations.
Experts say they will now explore the link between these DNA changes and biological ageing acceleration. (IANS)