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Dougla (Dogla): The mixed Ancestry

"Dougla" identity is just another example of the diverse and varied population found in the Caribbean

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Photo from Outlish.com

by Shubhi Mangla

Introduction

Douglas (Doglas) are basically the people of mixed ancestry of Indians and Africans. In the secondary sense, Douglas, carries the meaning of an impure blood and calls the person an illegitimate child. The term originated from the Bhojpuri or Hindi word “Doogala”. According to Ferne Louanne Regis of The University of West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago, in her paper presented at The Asian Conference on Arts & Humanities 2013:  “The word Dougla  is linked to dogla which is of Indic origin and is defined by Platts (1884, p.534) as a person of impure breed, a hybrid, a mongrel; a two-faced or deceitful person and a hypocrite.”

In Martinique, people of mixed Indian and African descent are called chappè (escaped) or èchappè(escaped). Its literal meaning is a person who escaped from being a pure Indian. In Guadeloupe, these people are termed as batta coolie or batta-zendeyn, wherein batta means “bastard” but intends to give a sense of mixed rather than a negative meaning.

The people who are called ‘Dougla’ do not always look similar. They do have some differences in their features. Dougla people mostly have thick black wavy hair and a rich brown skin with a slight undertone.

From You Tube: Mighty Dougla - Split Me In Two
From You Tube

History

  • The very first records of the Douglas were the result of the interaction between Indian men and African women. At that time, Indian women were considered a minority among the migrants. Women did not cross Atlantic as they assumed themselves unfit for labor and feared exploitation.
  • Preservation of their Hindu culture and religious practices was highly important for the laborers who took voyage across the Atlantic. Indulging in non-religious practices who did not belong to their community was considered a compromise with their religion, descent and culture. It was considered crucial for surviving in a foreign land.
  • Indians did not arrive in the British Caribbean with an intention to reside permanently. Their main goal was to achieve material wealth and return to their homeland. But this took a lot of time. Thus, the Douglas represents the delay of such goals.

Guyana

Guyana has the largest population of Douglas. Half of the population in Guyana comprises of Indo-Guyanese and Afro-Guyanese. The doula population in Guyana rose in the post-independence period due to urbanization, socialization, Inter-ethnic marriages, occupations and inter-religious activities. Most of the douglas are youngsters, particularly below 40 years of age. Presently, Douglas comprise of 17% of Guyanese population. Douglas are now starting to put forward their heritage.

Trinidad

The term Douglas is used by Indian-Trinidadians and African-Trinidadians. Black and Indian tend are used to observe the purity standards. Douglas get to choose their own identity. If they look like afro-Trinidadians, they choose black and choose Indian if they look more like Indo-Trinidadians. It is known that the Indo-Trinidadians are more religious, ethnic and rigid to its culture and tend to mix less with other communities as compared to Afro-Trinidadians. In Trinidad, Douglas can also alienate themselves from both the groups and claim them simply as Trinidadian. Hence, gaining national or ethnic identity.

Conclusion

Dr. Elizabeth Rosabelle Sieusarran, a professor at the University of the West Indies School of Continuing Education, delivered a speech at the official launch of the Indian Arrival Day Heritage Village set up by the El Dorado Shiv Mandir. She said that it is up to East Indians in Trinidad to decide whether want to accept douglas, mixed-race people of Indian and African descent, or outcast them from their community. She said, “In our quest for establishing unity among our people it is imperative for us to note a rapidly increasing phenomenon from the rise of a western system of education and the consequential westernization of the Indian community. This has resulted in the prevalence of inter-caste, inter-religious and inter-racial marriages. The Indian community has to decide how to handle the offspring of this significant group locally referred to as douglas. Do we accept them or ostracize them? Whatever course is adopted, the fragmentation of the Indian community must be avoided. Above all, we must always remember that Trinidad and Tobago is our patrimony. Our ancestors gave their blood and we have labored to enrich our country. We live in a multi-cultural society and co-existence is a necessary ingredient for our success in the future”.

Shubhi is a student of Journalism and Mass Communication in New Delhi, India. She is currently working as an intern in Newsgram. Twitter @shubhi_mangla

References

http://iafor.org/archives/offprints/acah2013-offprints/ACAH2013_0315.pdf

http://www.afropedea.org/dougla

http://www.landofsixpeoples.com/news603/ns60930.html

  • Sundiata Tellem

    I laugh because people of color that do this and say evil things of CHILDREN of color that are also people of color show their lack of study of history & science. If these Indians have not studied DNA, pointedly the Haplogroup groups L2/L3/ ‘M’s & ‘N’s then they are only hating on themselves and their ancestors and Self Curse themselves as a results!

    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning all the continents, the macro-haplogroup M, like its sibling N, is a DESCENDANT of haplogroup L3.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_(mtDNA)

    Haplogroup M4

    Haplogroup M4 – found mainly in South Asia but some sequences in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Haplogroup M4a – found in Gujarat, India

    Haplogroup L3

    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. L3 is believed to have arisen in East Africa 104,000 years ago. Haplogroup L3 has played a pivotal role in the history of the human species. Soon after the haplogroup arose in East Africa a relatively small number of migrants carried it across the Red Sea to the Arabian Peninsula, inaugurating an intercontinental migration that eventually settled every major land mass on Earth except Antarctica. That small group also gave rise to every non-African haplogroup.

    L3b – West Africa.

    L3c – East Africa and Sahel Zone. Ethiopian Jews, Yemeni Jews.

    L3d – Wide distribution in Africa. Among the Fulani, Chadians, Ethiopians-(Cushite), Akan people, Mozambique, Yemen Egyptians, Berbers.

    L3e – West-Central Africa. It is the most common L3 sub-clade in Bantu-speaking populations. It is also the most common L3 subclade amongst African Americans, Afro-Brazilians and Caribbean’s.

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  • Sundiata Tellem

    I laugh because people of color that do this and say evil things of CHILDREN of color that are also people of color show their lack of study of history & science. If these Indians have not studied DNA, pointedly the Haplogroup groups L2/L3/ ‘M’s & ‘N’s then they are only hating on themselves and their ancestors and Self Curse themselves as a results!

    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning all the continents, the macro-haplogroup M, like its sibling N, is a DESCENDANT of haplogroup L3.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_(mtDNA)

    Haplogroup M4

    Haplogroup M4 – found mainly in South Asia but some sequences in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Haplogroup M4a – found in Gujarat, India

    Haplogroup L3

    In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. L3 is believed to have arisen in East Africa 104,000 years ago. Haplogroup L3 has played a pivotal role in the history of the human species. Soon after the haplogroup arose in East Africa a relatively small number of migrants carried it across the Red Sea to the Arabian Peninsula, inaugurating an intercontinental migration that eventually settled every major land mass on Earth except Antarctica. That small group also gave rise to every non-African haplogroup.

    L3b – West Africa.

    L3c – East Africa and Sahel Zone. Ethiopian Jews, Yemeni Jews.

    L3d – Wide distribution in Africa. Among the Fulani, Chadians, Ethiopians-(Cushite), Akan people, Mozambique, Yemen Egyptians, Berbers.

    L3e – West-Central Africa. It is the most common L3 sub-clade in Bantu-speaking populations. It is also the most common L3 subclade amongst African Americans, Afro-Brazilians and Caribbean’s.

Next Story

Frenchman Trip Across Atlantic in Barrel Coming to an End

With no engine, sails or paddles, the unusual craft has relied on trade winds and currents to push Savin 4,800 kilometers from the Canary Islands to the Caribbean

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frenchman, atlantic, barrel
FILE - Jean-Jacques Savin works on the construction of a ship made from a barrel on Nov. 15, 2018, at the shipyard in Ares, France. VOA

A Frenchman who has spent 113 days floating across the Atlantic in a custom-made barrel says he is in high spirits as he approaches the end of his journey.

Earlier this week, Jean-Jacques Savin, 72, posted on his Facebook page that he was just 750 kilometers from the island of St. Martin. But he has traveled only 250 kilometers in the past week because of the lack of wind.

But he does not seem to mind. “There is no hurry, let’s leave time to time and now there are a series of favorable days coming to push me towards the South-West,” he wrote. With no engine, sails or paddles, the unusual craft has relied on trade winds and currents to push Savin 4,800 kilometers from the Canary Islands to the Caribbean.

Savin spent months building his bright orange, barrel-shaped capsule of resin-coated plywood that is strong enough to withstand battering waves and other stresses. The barrel is 3 meters long and 2.10 meters across, has a small galley area, and a mattress with straps to keep him from being tossed out of his bunk by rough seas.

frenchman, barrel, atlantic
Frenchman Jean-Jacques Savin posted on his Facebook page that he was just 750 kilometers from the island of St. Martin. He set sail for the Caribbean Dec. 26, leaving from El Hierro in Spain’s Canary Islands. VOA

Portholes on either side of the barrel and another looking into the water provide sunlight and a bit of entertainment. The unique craft also has a solar panel that generates energy for communications and GPS positioning.

As he drifts along, Savin is dropping markers in the ocean to help oceanographers study ocean currents. At the end of the journey, Savin himself will be studied by doctors for effects of solitude in close confinement.  He also posts regular updates, including GPS coordinates that track his journey,on a Facebook page.

ALSO READ: British-led Nekton Scientific Mission in Indian Ocean Reaches an End

He described his journey as a “crossing during which man isn’t captain of his ship, but a passenger of the ocean.”  Savin’s adventure, which will cost a little more than $65,000, was funded by French barrel makers and crowdfunding.

Savin hopes to end his journey on a French island, like Martinique or Guadeloupe. “That would be easier for the paperwork and for bringing the barrel back,” he told AFP. (VOA)