Thursday June 27, 2019

Researchers Find Drug to Delay Type-1 Diabetes by Two Years

The effects of the drug were greatest in the first year after it was given, said the study published online in The New England Journal of Medicine

0
//
Diabetes
Representational image. Pixabay

In a first, researchers have found that a treatment affecting the immune system effectively slowed the progression to clinical Type-1 diabetes in high risk individuals by two years or more.

“The results have important implications for people, particularly youth, who have relatives with the disease, as these individuals may be at high risk and benefit from early screening and treatment,” said Lisa Spain, Project Scientist from US National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

The study, involving treatment with an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (teplizumab), was conducted by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, an international collaboration aimed at discovering ways to delay or prevent Type-1 diabetes.

Participants were randomly assigned to either the treatment group, which received a 14-day course of teplizumab, or the control group, which received a placebo.

All participants received glucose tolerance tests regularly until the study was completed, or until they developed clinical Type-1 diabetes – whichever came first.

During the trial, 72 per cent of the people in the control group developed clinical diabetes, compared to only 43 per cent of the teplizumab group.

diabetes
“Although Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes in parents are well-established risk factors for diabetes, we show that gestational diabetes mellitus may be a risk indicator for diabetes in the mother’s children before age 22,” . Pixabay

The median time for people in the control group to develop clinical diabetes was just over 24 months, while those who developed clinical diabetes in the treatment group had a median time of 48 months before progressing to diagnosis.

“The difference in outcomes was striking. This discovery is the first evidence we’ve seen that clinical Type-1 diabetes can be delayed with early preventive treatment,” Spain added.

Type-1 diabetes develops when the immune system’s T cells mistakenly destroy the body’s own insulin-producing beta cells.

Also Read- Cutting Sodium Intake May Prevent 94 Million Premature Deaths From CVD

Insulin is needed to convert glucose into energy. Teplizumab targets T cells to lessen the destruction of beta cells.

The effects of the drug were greatest in the first year after it was given, said the study published online in The New England Journal of Medicine. (IANS)

Next Story

UN Report: 30% Increase in Drug Usage, 35 Million Suffering from Disorders

The death toll also increased, with 5,85,000 people dying in 2017 from drug use

0
drug
Opioids are the drugs that present the largest cause for concern due to the severe impact on the health of users. Pixabay

The United Nation’s latest report on drug use revealed a 30 per cent increase on 2009 with regards to the consumption of narcotics with some 35 million people worldwide suffering from drug disorders, thanks to in-depth surveys conducted in India and Nigeria.

The UN has raised the alarm on the need for further international cooperation to deal with the health and criminal impact of substance misuse, the Efe news reported.”

“The findings of this’year’s World Drug Report fill in and further complicate the global picture of drug challenges, underscoring the need for broader international cooperation to advance balanced and integrated health and criminal justice responses to supply and de”and,” Yury Fedotov, Executive Director of the UN’s Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), said.

“With improved research and more precise data from India and Nigeria, both amongst the 10 most populous countries in the world – we see that there are any more opioid users and people with use disorders than previously estimated,” Fedotov added.

drug
The studies have contributed to more accurate figures of drug use globally. Pixabay

The surveys in India in 2018 and Nigeria in 2017 have offered great insights into drug consumption due to being such vast demographics for their region. India accounts for 30 per cent of the population in Asia alone.

The Indian survey was based on interviews with 5,00,000 people across the nation. The studies have contributed to more accurate figures of drug use globally. The report estimated that of the 271 million people that used any drug, 35 million (nearly 13 per cent) suffer from a disorder.

Previous records fell 4.5 million people short in their estimates and it was the surveys conducted in both India and Nigeria that triggered the adjustment. The death toll also increased, with 5,85,000 people dying in 2017 from drug use.

Cannabis consumption, the most widely used drug globally with approximately 188 million users in 2016, has increased in Asia and North and South America, whilst a spike in use of opioids was registered.

Opioids are the drugs that present the largest cause for concern due to the severe impact on the health of users. Also of concern is the non-medical use of painkiller Tramadol produced in South Asia and trafficked primarily to Africa and the Middle East.

drug
The report estimated that of the 271 million people that used any drug, 35 million (nearly 13 per cent) suffer from a drug use disorder. VOA

Amongst the negative consequences of drug use, mental health disorders, HIV infection, hepatitis C and overdose are the main concerns, many of which can lead to premature death.

Injecting drugs, mainly opioids, is deemed the most dangerous way of consuming narcotics due to the proliferation of diseases through the sharing of needles. The rate of 15-64 year olds who inject drugs is four times higher in eastern and southeastern Europe and in central Asia.

ALSO READ: Poor Sleep Quality Associated with Reduced Memory in Senior Citizens

According to the report, 50 per cent of those live with hepatitis C. Mortality rates overwhelmingly affect men who account for 72 per cent of those who die as a result of drug use. Sixty-eight per cent of overdose deaths in 2017 were due to opioids.

Most of the world’s opioids are produced in Afghanistan (263,000 hectares of poppy seed production) with Myanmar (37,300 hectares) coming in as the second largest producer amid a decline in consumption in Asia as the demand for synthetic drugs increased, particularly methamphetamine. (IANS)