Friday January 24, 2020

Early Puberty in Girls May be a Result of Obesity in Mothers’

Maternal overweight and hyperglycemia or high blood sugar are linked to the earlier onset of puberty in girls, which can lead to multiple adverse health developments in adulthood, finds a study. The results showed that maternal obesity (body mass index of 30 or more) and overweight (body mass index between 25 and 30) in mothers was associated with 40 per cent and 20 per cent greater chance of earlier breast development in girls aged 6 to 11, respectively.

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pregnant, cesarean
However, when it comes to vaginal delivery, the first thought that crosses most womens' minds is of the labour pain which develops a fear of the VBAC, Pixabay

Maternal overweight and hyperglycemia or high blood sugar are linked to the earlier onset of puberty in girls, which can lead to multiple adverse health developments in adulthood, finds a study.

The results showed that maternal obesity (body mass index of 30 or more) and overweight (body mass index between 25 and 30) in mothers was associated with 40 per cent and 20 per cent greater chance of earlier breast development in girls aged 6 to 11, respectively.

“We know that maternal weight can influence childhood weight. What we are learning is that the utero environment may also affect the timing of future pubertal development in offspring, which makes sense since human brains are developed in utero and the brain releases hormones affecting puberty,” said lead author Ai Kubo, research scientist with the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research.

The study also found a significant relationship between hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar during pregnancy) in mothers and the earlier onset of breast development, but not in mothers with gestational diabetes.
Representational image. Pixabay

Similar associations between maternal obesity and earlier onset were also linked with the development of pubic hair.

The study also found a significant relationship between hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar during pregnancy) in mothers and the earlier onset of breast development, but not in mothers with gestational diabetes.

“It’s possible that women with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes were more careful about weight and diet, which might have changed the amount of weight gain and offspring development patterns, but other studies need to replicate the finding to be able to conclude that there is an association,” Kubo noted.

Evidence from epidemiologic data has also shown the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on the health of infants and their mothers. Pixabay
Baby Girl. pixabay

For the study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, the team included more than 15,000 girls and their mothers.

Also Read: Teenaged mothers at high risk for heart diseases later

Previous researches have demonstrated that early puberty, including the early onset of breast development or menarche (initiation of menstruation), increases the risk of adverse health outcomes including obesity, Type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and cancer in adolescence and adulthood.

For girls, it has been linked to a higher risk of adverse emotional and behavioural outcomes including depression, anxiety, earlier sexual initiation and pregnancy. (IANS)

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Lower Physical Activity in Adulthood Leads to Obesity: Study

Adulthood linked to lower amount of physical activity

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Physical activity obesity
Leaving school and getting a job both lead to a drop in the amount of physical activity. Pixabay

Leaving school and getting a job both lead to a drop in the amount of physical activity and may lead to an unhealthy lifestyle, while becoming a mother is linked to increased weight gain, researchers have found.

Many people tend to put on weight as they leave adolescence and move into adulthood and this is the age when the levels of obesity increase the fastest, the study said.

This weight gain is related to changes in diet and physical activity behaviour across the life events of early adulthood, including the move from school to further education and employment, starting new relationships and having children.

Physical activity
Many people tend to put on weight as they leave adolescence and move into adulthood due to less physical activity. Pixabay

“This evidence suggests that the pressures of university, employment and childcare drive changes in behaviour which are likely to be bad for long-term health,” said study researcher Eleanor Winpenny from University of Cambridge in the US.

For the study, published in the journal Obesity Reviews, researchers looked at changes in physical activity, diet and body weight as young adults move from education into employment and to becoming a parent.

To do this, they carried out systematic reviews and meta-analyses of existing scientific literature.

In the first of the two studies, the research team looked at the evidence relating to the transition from high school into higher education or employment and how this affects body weight, diet and physical activity.

In total, they found 19 studies covering ages 15-35 years, of which 17 assessed changes in physical activity, three body weight, and five diet or eating behaviours.

The team found that leaving high school was associated with a decrease of seven minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

The decrease was larger for males than it was for females (a decrease of 16.4 minutes per day for men compared to 6.7 minutes per day for women).

Physical activity
According to the researchers, most studies including physical activity showed a greater decline in parents versus non-parents. Pixabay

More detailed analysis revealed that the change is largest when people go to university, with overall levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity falling by 11.4 minutes per day.

In the second study, the team looked at the impact of becoming a parent on weight, diet and physical activity.

A meta-analysis of six studies found the difference in change in body mass index (BMI) between remaining without children and becoming a parent was 17 per cent: a woman of average height (164 cm) who had no children gained around 7.5 kg over five to six years, while a mother of the same height would gain an additional 1.3 kg.

Also Read- Gene Expression Signature in Blood May Predict Onset of Tuberculosis

These equate to increases in BMI of 2.8 versus 3.3. According to the researchers, most studies including physical activity showed a greater decline in parents versus non-parents.

The research team found limited evidence for diet, which did not seem to differ between parents and non-parents. (IANS)