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Earth’s Rapid warming in Late 20th Century Far More Widespread than Any Temperature Variations

Published in the journal Nature, it found that previous major climate events were confined to certain areas

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In this image made from video, climate change protesters block the car containing Britain's Conservative Party leader Boris Johnson on his way to meet the Queen in London, July 24, 2019. VOA

Earth’s rapid warming in the late 20th century was far more widespread than any temperature variations during the previous 2,000 years, according to a study published on Wednesday that shows how profoundly humans have altered the climate.

The study crunched data covering two millennia from almost 700 sources ranging from tree rings and coral to sediments and ice cores.

Published in the journal Nature, it found that previous major climate events were confined to certain areas, and not global phenomena as scientists had previously assumed, said one of its co-authors, Columbia University climate scientist Nathan Steiger.

“The main takeaway is that climate variability in the contemporary period is very different than what’s happened in the past 2,000 years,” he said.

Earth, Warming, Temperature
Earth’s rapid warming in the late 20th century was far more widespread than any temperature variations during the previous 2,000 years. Pixabay

Natural phenomenon?

Some people who question whether burning coal, oil and gas is causing global warming point to evidence of prolonged shifts in climatic conditions in past centuries to argue that today’s higher temperatures may also be a natural phenomenon.

Previous shifts include the “Medieval Climate Anomaly” from 800-1200 AD when temperatures rose, and the “Little Ice Age” from around the 1300s to the 1850s when Britons skated on the frozen River Thames.

But the study, which measured readings from zero to 2,000 AD, showed that some of the coldest temperatures during that period were more localized, occurring in parts of the Pacific in the 15th century and in northwestern Europe and southeastern North America in the 17th.

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By contrast, the researchers found that the rapid rise in average temperatures in the closing decades of the last century affected more than 98% of the planet.

“This is definitely further evidence that fossil fuels and anthropogenic activity actually has fundamentally changed the climate,” Steiger told Reuters.

Volcanic activity 

Mark Maslin, professor of climatology, at University College London (UCL) said the paper should “finally stop climate change deniers claiming that the recent observed coherent global warming is part of a natural … cycle.”

Earth, Warming, Temperature
The study crunched data covering two millennia from almost 700 sources ranging from tree rings and coral to sediments and ice cores. Pixabay

A parallel study published in Nature Geoscience found that pre-industrial fluctuations in temperature were primarily driven by volcanic activity.

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The studies were released less than a week after temperature data from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration showed last month was the hottest June globally in 140 years. (VOA)

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Here are 5 Mistakes that may Kill Your Plants in Winters

Mistakes that kill your plants in winter

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Plants in winters
It is your duty to take care of your plants during winters as some careless mistakes might kill them. Pixabay

As winter approaches, humans go into power-saving mode and do all that it takes to make the cold season as cosy as possible. Considering that plants can’t do so by themselves, we need to take care of them during these few months.

For some plants, winters are a time when they go into hibernation. That means they can slow down their growth or even go completely dormant. The severely cold temperatures can sometimes send them into shock. So we need to give them some extra love and care during these possibly distressing months. Here’s a look at some things that could cause harm to your plants and what you can do to prevent it. Vinayak Garg, Founder of LazyGardener, underlines key points to be kept in mind.

1.Relocation

Now plants that are in the ground, cannot be moved of course, but potted plants should be moved to a place where they will get as much sunlight as possible. In winters, the days slowly become shorter, which means less sun exposure, so if possible move the plants according to the sun, allowing them to soak up as much as they can.

They should also be kept in a location where they don’t get too much of a cold breeze of drafts.

Make sure that the plant’s foliage does not have dew on it, if it does, you can wipe it off. Plants like succulents are sensitive and water deposits on the plant can kill them.

Overwatering winters
Overwatering plants during winters is not a good idea. Lifetime Stock

You can move your outdoor potted plants indoors, next to a window that has the most sun exposure. Also, make sure the window is clean so it allows more sun to shine through as opposed to a dusty one which would make the sunlight diffused. Small things can help the plant withstand the cold temperatures.

2.Water Temperature

Have you ever gotten up on a cold winter morning and walked to your bathroom in a half-asleep state and turned the tap on and jumped up in shock? Yes, sometimes the tap water can get so extremely cold that your hands might start hurting after washing them with the cold water. This extremely cold water can harm your plants as well.

The cold water will force the sensitive roots into shock. A good habit would be to fill up a bucket of water in the morning when you wake up, let it sit and reach at least room temperature and then you can water all your plants.

3.Overwatering

It is very easy to overwater a plant during the winters. It may seem to be counter-intuitive to not water your plants in winter, with the air being very dry, but plants are the most susceptible to root rot during winters. Because of the minimum sun exposure, the evaporation rate also drops down a lot. This causes the water in the pot to accumulate for a longer period of time, giving the roots more opportunity to rot. It might be hard, but avoid watering your plants until the dire need arises, or the soil is dry completely. You should also take care of when you water the plants. Watering in the evening and night may be detrimental to plant because the temperatures drop severely at night and the water that the soil holds will also get very very cold, which will, in turn, harm the sensitive roots of the plant. The best time would be in the late morning when the sun is just beginning to warm the soil.

4. Cleaning the plants

Cleaning winters
Cleaning your plants even during winters is very important. Pixabay

We need to make sure that in winter, the plant is at its optimum capacity to soak up as much sunlight as possible. When dust accumulates on the leaves of the plants, it prevents them from performing photosynthesis as well as they can. Cleaning the surface of the leaves with a soft damp cloth is the best way to get your plants looking pretty and giving them the best chance to take in all the sun that they can!

Cleaning your plants also includes getting rid of any dead leaves or stems. Dead, rotten leaves and stems can cause infections in healthy ones. So it is necessary to get rid of the dead parts promptly.

Any weeds should also be taken out of the pot. Sometimes small vegetation grows in the pot without you even planting anything, but these weeds take up resources from the soil.

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5. Repotting

Repotting of plants should be avoided in winters. Plants are at their dormant phase in winters and repotting can disturb the root system easily, leading plant into a state of shock. Repotting should be resumed in early springs which starts from February. (IANS)