London, Nov 1: Air pollution can increase the risk of death from kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer besides causing lung cancer, a study has showed.
According to researchers, air pollution represents a complex mixture of a broad range of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances that may play a role in chronic systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in tissues that could ultimately prove fatal.
“This research suggests that the effect of air pollution was not associated with death from most non-lung cancers, but the associations with kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer deserve further investigation,” said lead author Michelle Turner, researcher at the Barcelona Institute of Global Health (ISGlobal) in Spain.
For the study, published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, the team included more than 600,000 adults in the US and examined associations of mortality from cancer at 29 sites with long-term residential exposure to three ambient pollutants: PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3).
Over 43,000 non-lung cancer deaths were registered among the participants. PM2.5 was associated with mortality from kidney and bladder cancer, with a 14 and 13 per cent increase respectively, for each 4.4 µg/m3 (microgram) increase in exposure.
In turn, exposure to NO2 was associated with colorectal cancer death, with a 6 per cent increase per each 6.5 ppb (parts per billion) increment.
No significant associations were observed with cancer at other sites. (IANS)
Women who exercise vigorously are at significantly lower risk of dying from heart disease, cancer and other causes, reveals a new study.
The study, presented at EuroEcho 2019, a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), examined exercise capacity and heart function during exercise in women and their links with survival.
The study included over 4,000 adult women referred for treadmill exercise echocardiography because of known or suspected coronary artery disease.
“Exercise as much as you can. Fitness protects against death from any cause,” said study author Jesus Peteiro from University Hospital A Coruna in Spain.
For the findings, participants walked or ran on a treadmill, gradually increasing the intensity, and continuing until exhaustion.
Images of the heart were generated during the test. Fitness was defined as a maximal workload of 10 metabolic equivalents (METs), which is equal to walking fast up four flights of stairs or very fast up three flights, without stopping.
Women who achieved 10 METs or more (good exercise capacity) were compared to those achieving less than 10 METs (poor exercise capacity).
During a median follow-up of 4.6 years there were 345 cardiovascular deaths, 164 cancer deaths, and 203 deaths from other causes.
After adjusting for factors that could influence the relationship, METs were significantly associated with lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes.
The annual rate of death from cardiovascular disease was nearly four times higher in women with poor, compared to good, exercise capacity (2.2 per cent versus 0.6 per cent).
Annual cancer deaths were doubled in patients with poor, compared to good, exercise capacity (0.9 per cent versus 0.4 per cent).
The annual rate of death from other causes was more than four times higher in those with poor, compared to good, exercise capacity (1.4 per cent vs 0.3 per cent).
“Good exercise capacity predicted lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes,” Peteiro said.
The researcher noted that most study participants were middle aged or older women: the average age was 64 and 80 per cent were between 50 and 75.
“The results were the same for women over 60 and less than 60 although the group under 50 was small,” said Peteiro.
Regarding imaging of the heart, the researchers assessed function of the left ventricle (one of the heart’s pumping chambers) during the exercise test.
Patients with poor heart function during exercise had a higher probability of death from cardiovascular disease during follow-up.
Heart function during exercise did not predict the likelihood of death from cancer or other causes.
“Looking at both examinations together, women whose heart works normally during exercise are unlikely to have a cardiovascular event. But if their exercise capacity is poor, they are still at risk of death from cancer or other causes,” Peteiro said.
“The best situation is to have normal heart performance during exercise and good exercise capacity,” Peteiro added. (IANS)