Tuesday October 16, 2018

Effect of Air Pollution: Escalates Mortality Risk, Besides Causing Deadly Diseases like Lung and Kidney Cancer

Air pollution can increase the risk of death from kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer besides causing lung cancer

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Effect of Air pollution
Air pollution may lead to deadly diseases like lung and kidney cancer. Pixabay.
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London, Nov 1: Air pollution can increase the risk of death from kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer besides causing lung cancer, a study has showed.

According to researchers, air pollution represents a complex mixture of a broad range of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances that may play a role in chronic systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in tissues that could ultimately prove fatal.

“This research suggests that the effect of air pollution was not associated with death from most non-lung cancers, but the associations with kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer deserve further investigation,” said lead author Michelle Turner, researcher at the Barcelona Institute of Global Health (ISGlobal) in Spain.

effect of Air Pollution
The effect of Air Pollution is deadly, causing non lung cancers as well. Pixabay.

For the study, published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, the team included more than 600,000 adults in the US and examined associations of mortality from cancer at 29 sites with long-term residential exposure to three ambient pollutants: PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3).

ALSO READ: Air Pollution Expected to cause 60000 deaths by 2030

Over 43,000 non-lung cancer deaths were registered among the participants. PM2.5 was associated with mortality from kidney and bladder cancer, with a 14 and 13 per cent increase respectively, for each 4.4 µg/m3 (microgram) increase in exposure.

In turn, exposure to NO2 was associated with colorectal cancer death, with a 6 per cent increase per each 6.5 ppb (parts per billion) increment.

No significant associations were observed with cancer at other sites. (IANS)

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Compound Found in Grape Skin Can Protect Against Lung Cancer: Research

The resveratrol concentration obtained in the lungs after nasal administration of the formulation was 22 times higher than when taken orally

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grapes, improvement of teeth
Consumption of grapes can lead to having healthier teeth. Pixabay

Researchers have found that a molecule — resveratrol — found in grape skin, seeds and red wine can protect against lung cancer.

Lung cancer is the deadliest form of the disease in the world and 80 per cent of deaths are related to smoking. In addition to tobacco control, effective chemo-prevention strategies are therefore needed.

In experiments in mice, the researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) prevented lung cancer induced by a carcinogen found in cigarette smoke by using resveratrol.

Lung cancer
This formulation is applicable to humans, the researchers noted.

“We observed a 45 per cent decrease in tumour load per mouse in the treated mice. They developed fewer tumours and of smaller size than untreated mice,” said Muriel Cuendet, associate professor at the varsity.

The team conducted their 26-week study on four groups of mice. The first one — the control — received neither carcinogen nor resveratrol treatment. The second received only the carcinogen. The third received both the carcinogen and the treatment, whereas the fourth received only the treatment.

When comparing the two groups that were not exposed to carcinogen, 63 per cent of the mice treated did not develop cancer, compared to only 12.5 per cent of the untreated mice.

“Resveratrol could, therefore, play a preventive role against lung cancer,” Cuendet added.

This formulation is applicable to humans, the researchers noted.

Lung cancer
Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, lung diseases and cardiovascular diseases, Pixabay

However, when ingested, resveratrol did not prevent lung cancer as it is metabolised and eliminated within minutes. It does not have time to reach the lungs.

Also Read: Wine Tied to Healthier Arteries for Some Diabetics

Conversely, when the molecule was administered through the nasal route, it as found to be much effective and allows the compound to reach the lungs.

The resveratrol concentration obtained in the lungs after nasal administration of the formulation was 22 times higher than when taken orally, the researchers said. (IANS)