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Evidences of Recruitment and Abolition show the plight of Indentured immigrants from India

Authors and researchers bring out history of certain origins and the dynamics of Indian Indentured Labourers

Indian labour transportation to West Indies, Wikimedia

This article is completely based on the research work and opinion of Dr Kwame Nantambu. Indian Arrival Day in Trinidad and Tobago marks an important event in the Indian History as well as World History. If one browses through the article, they will come across details about the origins that include the Asian-Chinese Dynasty, “Ganges” river, Indian originality and the label “Indentured Servants.” Dr Kwame Nantambu is a part-time lecturer at Cipriani College of Labour and Co-operative Studies has highlighted certain origins and the historical dynamics of Indian Arrival.

Asian-Chinese Dynasty

Pieces of evidence and studies have revealed that Africans had ruled all of Asia in the B.C. era. It is quite strange to know that China’s first two and most important dynasties- the Xia (2205-1766 B.C.) and Shang/Chang were ruled by Africans.

Understanding facial dynamics also add an interesting angle in knowing the origin of several communities. If one takes a closer look at the Asian facial type of eyes, one will notice it is slanted. This is one of the common characteristics of people in West Africa, the Sahara and in South Africa among the Kong-San Bushmen. Therefore, as one can already figure it out that these ancient Africans brought numerous facial dynamics when they ruled Asia for centuries and mingled with the indigenous population; just as the African-Moors did in Euro-Spain from 711-1492 A.D.

History bears proof that the earliest occupants or inhabitants of Asia are Africans, from ancient Kemet or Egypt. They were the ones who built pyramids in China, which is located near Siang Fu city in the Shensi province.

Need more proofs? The 1st Chinese emperor, Fu-Hsi (“Son of Heaven”) 2953-2838 B.C. was a woolly-haired Black-African man who invented the oracle of “I Ching” or “The Book of Change.”

In addition to that “martial arts,” a form of sports and the therapy called “acupuncture” today were the gift of the ancient Africans from Kemet/Egypt to China. One can go in person and see the evidence of all these historical truisms painted on the walls of Temple of Ptah. In ancient Kemet or Egypt B.C., the ‘opening of the mouth’ ceremony was believed to have been devised by him.”

“Ganges” River

“Ganges” is considered one of the most sacred of rivers in India, as there is a spiritual significance attached to it. But, only a few of them is aware of the fact that is named in the honour of the most famous and powerful African or Ethiopian King, namely Pharaoh/King Ganges, who invaded, conquered as well as ruled Asia as far as this river in India circa 1,500 B.C.

Indian Originality

History bears witness that Indian “indentured servants” came to Trinidad from India in May 1845. They did not come from Indo. Put another way, Indians were the people who came from India; they were not the Indoes who came from Indo.

Ergo, the descendants of these original Indians are now proud Indian-Trinbagonians in May 2011. They are not Indo-Trinbagonians- this label is totally ahistorical and must not only be immediately relegated to the ash heap of T&T’s cultural or ethnic history but must also be expunged from T&T’s societal lexicon.

Capitalism and Slavery, a book by Eric Williams. Image source: Wikimedia Commons
Capitalism and Slavery, a book by Eric Williams. Image source: Wikimedia Commons

“Indentured Servants”: Afri-centric Background

In his magnum opus titled Capitalism and Slavery (1938), Dr. Eric Williams asserts:

“The immediate successor of the Amerindians was not the African but ‘poor whites.’ They were regarded as ‘indentured servants’ because before leaving England, they had to sign a contract binding them to service for a stipulated period in return for their passage. Others were criminals/convicts who were sent by the British government to serve for a specific time on plantations in the Caribbean.” (p.9).

Dynamics of Indian Arrival

Image source:
A Post Emancipation History of the West Indies. Image source:

Prof. Isaac Dookhan in his book titled A Post Emancipation History of the West Indies (1975), suggests that immigration of Indians to the Caribbean was very attractive due to following reasons:

  • During the Colonial rule, the establishment of the British factory system in India destroyed Indian domestic industries, like the spinning of cloth and as a result about tens of thousands were thrown out of work and this resulted in the high unemployment rate.
  • Due to the failing of crops and high food prices, parts of India got affected by famine.
  • Lands were taken away forcefully or by illegal methods in India and Indians were promised of land for themselves in Carribean
  • Indians saw Trinidad and Guyana as a better future for themselves as the Indians were promised higher wages. Labourers were paid between 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 pence a day in India but in Trinidad, they could earn 2 shillings a day and in Guyana, 1 shilling and 9 pence a day, that was enough to lure them.
  • Criminals who escaped from the police and were afraid of returning to the village, as well as loafers, could go to the colonies.
  • As small scale industries were shut down, displaced workers in cottage industries and agriculture and labourers experienced seasonal unemployment and financial crisis became common. Due to lack of job opportunities, they were ready to listen to the Euro-British recruiters’ propaganda.
  • Some Indians were brought to Carribean by giving a false hope that they could find non-agricultural work as policemen, teachers, clerks, and much more in the Caribbean colonies.
  • Contacts and communications with returning relatives and friends from Carribean, who came back home with a decent sum of money encouraged Indians to emigrate. (pp.51-52)

The religious breakdown of the Indians who came to Trinidad: 85.3% Hindus, 14% Muslims and .07% Christians.

The result clearly states that majority of them were Hindus as the last Euro-British ship to bring Indians from India was called the “Ganges.” It took about five months to reach Carribean from India as it was via Cape of Good Hope (Africa).

225 Indians arrived at Nelson Island, Trinidad, on the Muslim-owned vessel “Fath Al Razak,” on 30 May 1845. Six Indians died during that journey via the “Kala Paani” or Middle Passage.

Indian Arrival Day—Guyana

18 Indians died in the journey, when two small sailing ships, the “Whitby” and “Hesperus” arrived with 396 immigrants from India on 5 May 1847.

Indian Arrival Day—Jamaica

In Jamaica, it was on 10 May 1845 when 261 Indians arrived on the ship “Blundell Hunter.”

Indians who came to Trinidad consisted of men and women between the age group of 10-30 years and they were from the lower caste people Shudras, and not the Brahmins, who came to Trinidad. Others were agricultural workers and 40 women to 100 men were selected from this section.

The Indians came to Trinidad from the following towns in India: Calcutta, Madras, Pondicherry, Punjab, Lahore, Karachi, Bihar, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Mardan and Kashmir. As of this writing (29 May 2011), the umbilical, ancestral cord of this historic, unforgettable journey is still etched in the names of streets in St. James — location, location, location.

An Indenture certificate. Image source: Wikimedia Commons
An Indenture certificate. Image source: Wikimedia Commons

An offer of 5 pounds and five acres of land were made to the Indian “indentured labourers” to stay in the colonies after their contract ended. The offer was different for men and women. While men received a five-year contract, women got only a three-year contract. The stark historical reality is that the Indian “indentured labourers” received the same treatment from the Euro-British government that was afforded to the Euro-British “poor whites” or “indentured servants.” The contract said that 10 years after the contract ended, immigrants could return to India and a free passage will be provided.

In the colonies, the work schedule was such that the Indian “indentured migrants” were required to work only 280 days a year; while women who are pregnant worked part-time on the plantations. In case a woman has children, older women used to look after them.

In 1869, the Euro-Trinidad–colonial government opened up Crown Lands for sale and thousands of ex-indentured Indians acquired ten–acre estates. In 1884, the Euro-colonial-British government established the Peasant Development Programme to assist in the economic development of Indians in Trinidad.

Dispersal of Indians in Diaspora

Research by Prof. Isaac Dookhan reveals the count of Caribbean indenture dispersal of Indians: Trinidad, 143,939 (1845-1917); Jamaica, 36, 412 (1845-1885); Guyana, 238,909 (1847-1917); St. Lucia 4,354; Grenada, 3,200; St. Vincent, 2,472 and St. Kitts, 337 (p.51). Apart from that, Indian “Indentured labourers” also went to Fiji, Belize, Mauritius, Martinique, and Guadeloupe. If one counts the total, it sums up to 1.5 million Indians, who left India in this labour-intensive exercise.

It was on 21 March 1916, when the Euro-colonial–British government went ahead and abolished the Indian indentureship system and it came into effect on 21 March 1917.

– prepared by NewsGram team


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CPR training for all must to save lives: Experts

Nearly 98 per cent Indians are not trained in basic life-saving technique of CPR during sudden cardiac arrest

Participants practice cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important life skill to know. VOA

Imagine walking on the road and suddenly seeing a passerby suffering from chest pain and collapsing. Would you be able to give a lifesaving Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)? Most likely, no.

A recent survey conducted by Lybrate — a domestic online doctor consultation platform — showed that nearly 98 per cent Indians are not trained in basic life-saving technique of CPR during sudden cardiac arrest.

In India, sudden cardiac arrest is a major cause of death due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and shockingly 60 per cent of the people who suffer a sudden cardiac arrest succumb to it even before they reach hospital, the survey, conducted in 2016, showed.

It is important to be trained in CPR. Flickr

The need of the hour is to make CPR training a must in schools and colleges and even at community level, as it can triple a patient’s chance of survival, if performed in the first few minutes of cardiac arrest, health experts said. CPR consists of using chest compressions and artificial ventilation to maintain circulatory flow and oxygenation during cardiac arrests and is the cost effective way to improve survival.

“In case of sudden cardiac arrest, the mortality is very high — almost 90 per cent or more if not resuscitated within 10 minutes,” Neeraj Bhalla, Director and Senior Consultant Cardiology at BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi, told IANS.

The American Heart Association (AHA) defines CPR as an emergency procedure to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a patient and, especially, if performed immediately, it can double or triple a cardiac arrest patient’s chance of survival.

“Any process to bring back the heart beats in the first minute is very important and CPR is one very effective and time-tested process. There should be a concerted effort to make CPR training a must,” added Piyusha Majumdar, Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Health Management Research (IIHMR) University, Jaipur.

The basic technique of CPR illustrated. Pixabay

The AHA recommends uninterrupted chest compression (100 chest compressions in a minute) to the patient until para-medical support is given, which helps in supplying oxygenated blood to the brain and preventing death. Bystander CPR, and AED (automated defibrillators), are very useful in saving lives,” Bhalla said.

“The use of AED — used to diagnose life-threatening arrhythmias or irregularity of heart rhythm — can also be used to treat a dying heart by using electric shock to revive the heart’s rhythm,” Vanita Arora of Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket, New Delhi, told IANS.

The device is easy to use, and with some basic training, it can easily be operated by a layman. However, “it is not available at most places, unfortunately. An AED machine should be there at every place where there’s a fire extinguisher. That’s how important a role it can play in saving lives,” Arora noted.

Also Read: CPR Survival Rates Lower Than Most People Think

“The government can also come out with campaigns and such training should be given to all and sundry. Government and private hospitals should also be roped in to provide training, apart from making it compulsory in schools and colleges. Besides, NGOs can also be of great help in such an initiative,” Majumdar added.

The experts also noted that most people fail to identify when a person is suffering cardiac arrest. “A person suffering cardiac arrest will show the following symptoms: pain in the chest, palpitations or shortness of breath, collapse due to loss of consciousness and, most critical, no detectable pulse. The last two are very easy to detect and are almost clear signs of cardiac arrest,” Arora emphasised.

“When you see a person faint or become unconscious gasping for breath, the first thing is to check the pulse or beating of the heart. A person suffering from sudden cardiac arrest will not have detectable pulse, which means he has only seconds to survive. The next step is to call emergency medical service immediately. Almost simultaneously, the person should begin performing CPR,” she noted.

CPR is being administered while a second rescuer prepares for defibrillation. Wikipedia

At the same time, proper heart examination should be made part of routine health check up among the people in the country. People get heart check-ups like ECG and angiographies done only when they face problems like chest pain or any other symptom of heart attack or cardiac arrest.

One should never ignore unexplained weakness, tiredness, first onset chest burning or first onset breathlessness after the age of 40. Those with strong family history of heart disease should get themselves screened, the doctors said.

Leading a healthy lifestyle — including a daily exercise routine, eating healthy food and avoiding stress, adequate sleep — is good for maintaining a healthy heart. It must be made mandatory to teach CPR to all students, office-goers, security personal and almost every citizen of the country, the experts said. IANS