Saturday December 7, 2019

Except For Kerala, Anemia Targets All States in India

Anemia Preys Children in all States in India except for Kerala

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Anemia
Apart from Kerala, Anemia becomes a sensitive Health Problem for Primary school going children in All Indian States. Pixabay

Anemia is at least a mild public health problem for school-age children between the age group of 5-9 years in all states except for Kerala, according to the findings of the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS), 2016-18.

Anemia was a moderate or severe public health problem among pre-school children in 27 states, school-age children in 15 states and adolescents in 20 states, the report said.

Anemia was most prevalent at more than 50 per cent among both boys and girls under two years of age and thereafter, decreased steadily to 11 years of age to about 15 per cent.

Overall, 41 per cent of pre-schoolers aged 1-4 years, 24 per cent of school-age children aged 5-9 years and 28 per cent of adolescents aged 10-19 years had some degree of anemia.

The survey noted that the severity of anemia varied across age groups. Among pre-schoolers, 22 per cent had mild anemia, 18 per cent had moderate anemia  and 1 per cent had severe anemia.

Indian Meal
Proper Feeding through Complete Meals to School Going Children may reduce the chances of Anemia. Pixabay

Among school-age children, 10 per cent had mild anemia, 13 per cent had moderate anemia, and 1 per cent had severe anemia. Among adolescents, 17 per cent had mild anemia, 10 per cent had moderate anemia and 1 per cent had severe anemia.

An increased prevalence was observed among older adolescents. Anemia was more prevalent among female adolescents 12 years of age and older at 40 per cent compared to their male counterparts at 18 per cent.

The prevalence of anemia varied by the schooling status of children and adolescents.

Compared to those currently in school, anemia prevalence was higher among out-of-school children aged 5 to 9 years and adolescents aged 10-19 years.

Additionally, the prevalence of anemia decreased with a higher level of mother’s schooling among both school-age children and adolescents.

Indian School Children
Anemia was most prevalent among both boys and girls under two years of age and thereafter, decreased steadily to 11 years of age to about 15 per cent. Pixabay

In all three age groups, anemia was most prevalent among scheduled tribes, followed by scheduled castes. More than half (53 per cent) of pre-schoolers and more than one-third of school-age children and adolescents (38 per cent each) belonging to scheduled tribes were anemic.

The prevalence of anemia decreased steadily with an increase in household wealth in all three age groups.

Among pre-schoolers, the prevalence of anemia was highest in Madhya Pradesh (54 per cent), followed by Haryana (48 per cent) and Delhi (47 per cent) and was lowest in Nagaland (8 per cent) and Manipur (10 per cent).

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Among school-age children, Tripura (41 per cent), Assam (35 per cent) and Jharkhand (34 per cent) and West Bengal (34 per cent) had the highest prevalence of anemia and Kerala (3 per cent), Jammu & Kashmir (7 per cent) and Manipur (7 per cent) had the lowest prevalence. Among adolescents, West Bengal (46 per cent), Tripura (41 per cent) and Assam (37 per cent) had the highest prevalence of anemia, while Nagaland (8 per cent) and Kerala (9 per cent) had the lowest prevalence. (IANS)

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Reduction in Air Pollution May Increase Life-Expectancy: Study

Findings of a Research indicate almost immediate and substantial effects on health outcomes followed reduced exposure to air pollution

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Pollution
Fortunately, reducing air Pollution can result in prompt and substantial health gains. Pixabay

Reductions in Air Pollution yielded fast and dramatic impacts on health-outcomes, as well as decreases in all-cause morbidity, a new study suggests.

The study, published in the journal Annals of the American Thoracic Society, reviewed interventions that have reduced air pollution at its source. It looked for outcomes and time to achieve those outcomes in several settings, finding that the improvements in health were striking.

Starting at week one of a ban on smoking in Ireland, for example, there was a 13 per cent drop in all-cause mortality, a 26 per cent reduction in ischemic heart disease, a 32 per cent reduction in stroke, and a 38 per cent reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interestingly, the greatest benefits in that case occurred among non-smokers.

“We knew there were benefits from pollution control, but the magnitude and relatively short time duration to accomplish them were impressive,” said lead author Dean Schraufnagel from the American Thoracic Society in the US.

“Our findings indicate almost immediate and substantial effects on health outcomes followed reduced exposure to air pollution. It’s critical that governments adopt and enforce WHO guidelines for air pollution immediately,” Schraufnagel added.

Pollution
Reductions in Air Pollution yielded fast and dramatic impacts on health-outcomes, as well as decreases in all-cause morbidity, a new study suggests. Pixabay

According to the researchers, In the US a 13-month closure of a steel mill in Utah resulted in reducing hospitalisations for pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis and asthma by half.

School absenteeism decreased by 40 per cent, and daily mortality fell by 16 per cent for every 100 µg/m3 PM10 (a pollutant) decrease.

Women who were pregnant during the mill closing were less likely to have premature births.

A 17-day ‘transportation strategy,’ in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1996 Olympic Games involved closing parts of the city to help athletes make it to their events on time, but also greatly decreased air pollution.

In the following four weeks, children’s visits for asthma to clinics dropped by more than 40 per cent and trips to emergency departments by 11 per cent. Hospitalizations for asthma decreased by 19 per cent.

WHO
Findings of the Study indicate almost immediate and substantial effects on health outcomes followed reduced exposure to air pollution. It’s critical that governments adopt and enforce WHO guidelines for air pollution immediately. Wikimedia Commons

Similarly, when China imposed factory and travel restrictions for the Beijing Olympics, lung function improved within two months, with fewer asthma-related physician visits and less cardiovascular mortality.

“Fortunately, reducing air pollution can result in prompt and substantial health gains. Sweeping policies affecting a whole country can reduce all-cause mortality within weeks,” Schraufnagel said.

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Local programmes, such as reducing traffic, have also promptly improved many health measures, said the study. (IANS)