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The reaction is taking place in the chemistry lab

By- Monika Rao

Organic Chemistry is one of the branches of Chemistry that study the properties, structure, composition, reaction, and preparation of compounds that contain carbon.

They include not only hydrocarbons but also compounds that contain other elements such as Nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and halogens like silicon and sulfur. In the beginning, Organic Chemistry was limited to the compounds made by living organisms. However, it is now being extended to include human-made substances such as plastics.

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The range of applications includes food, pharmaceuticals, explosives, explosives cosmetics, petrochemicals, and paints, the use of these compounds is huge. Class 12 of Organic Chemistry consists of 7 units that contribute nearly 28 marks on the CBSE Chemistry class 12 exam.

Also read: Important Chemical Reactions for Class 12 Chemistry:

Important Chemical Reactions

1. Sandmeyer Reaction:

Sandmeyer reaction can be described as a form of substitution reaction extensively used to create aryl halides from diazonium salts. Copper salts such as Chloride, bromide and iodide are used as catalysts for this reaction.

In particular, the Sandmeyer reaction can be utilized to create special transformations to the benzene. The transformations include trifluoromethylation, cyanation, hydroxylation, and halogenation.

2. Gattermann Reaction:

The Gattermann reaction is an organic reaction in which aromatic compounds are formulated with hydrochloric acid(HCL) combined with the help of an acid catalyst of Lewis like Alcl3.

Formylation is a procedure where the formyl group(-CH=O) is joined to the compound. It is named in honour of Ludwig Gattermann, a reputed German chemical scientist. It is also referred to in the form of Gattermann formylation. It is a substitution reaction that is very similar to the Friedel crafts reaction.

3. Balz-Schiemann Reaction:

Balz Schiemann Reaction Mechanism describes the procedure for preparing and the subsequent thermal dissolution of an aromatic fluoborate to produce the alkyl fluoride. The name of the reaction comes from two German scientists who discovered it - Gunther Balz and Gunther Schiemann.

The primary reactants are aromatic amines, fluoroboric acid. Aromatic amines are subjected to diazotization under the influence of nitrogenous acid.

Fluoroboric acid has been added to produce the corresponding diazonium aryl salt. The diazonium aryl salt is exposed to heat, causing thermal decomposition to give us the aryl fluoride, Boron trifluoride and Nitrogen.

Chemical reactions and formulas chemical reactions and the formulas Unsplash

4. Finkelstein Reaction:

The Finkelstein reaction can be described as Substitution Nucleophilic Biomolecular reaction Reaction). It is the process of exchanging the halogen atom. The name is derived from a German chemical scientist, Hans Finkelstein.

The organic chemical reaction utilizes an exchange of an alkyl halide to another alkyl-halide via an enzymatic reaction in which the metal halide salts are used. This reaction happens at an equilibrium level by benefiting from the low solubility of acetone within the newly formed metal halide salts.

The mechanism behind the Finkelstein reaction is a one-step SN2 reaction that includes stereochemistry inversion.

Also read: How Refrigeration Changed the World and Might

5. Swarts Reaction:

Swarts``reaction" is usually used to create alkyl fluorides from alkyl chlorine and alkyl bromides. It is achieved by heating bromide or alkyl chloride in the presence of fluoride from certain heavier metals (silver fluoride or mercurous, for instance).

The reaction will occur when potassium sulfide and sodium fluoride is used. However, the yield will be much less. The first time this process was described was in 1892 through Frederic Jean Edmond Swarts.

6. Wurtz Reaction:

It is believed that the Wurtz reaction is beneficial in organic chemistry and organometallic chemistry for the creation of alkanes. This reaction is where two distinct alkyl halides are linked to create a long alkane chain with the help of dry ether and sodium solution.

The reaction's name is from Charles Adolphe Wurtz, a French chemical chemist who discovered the aldol reaction. Other than sodium, metals like indium, silver, activated copper, iron, and zinc can be utilized to perform the Wurtz reaction to produce alkanes.

7. Wurtz-Fittig Reaction:

The mechanism of the Wurtz-Fittig reaction can be explained through either the organo-alkali process or the radical mechanism. The chemical reaction between alkyl halides and aryl halides with sodium metal, further with dry ether that results in substitutable aromatic compounds, is known as the Wurtz-Fittig process.

It's named after two scientists Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig and Charles Adolphe Wurtz (Wurtz), to discover a carbon-carbon bond that results by coupling two alkyl halides and Fitting for the extension of the method to alkyl-aryl the halide coupling).

8. Friedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction:

These reactions were invented in 1877 by American chemical engineer James Crafts and French scientist Charles Friedel. The Friedel-Crafts reaction can be described as an organic coupling reaction that involves an electrophilic aromatic substitution which can be used to attach aromatic rings with substituents. The two main types of Friedel Crafts reactions are the alkylation and acylation reactions.

9. Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction:

The Friedel Crafts acylation is reactions of an arene with acyl chlorides or anhydrides by using the powerful catalyst made of Lewis acid. The reaction takes place via electrophilic aromatic transformation to produce monoacetylated substances.

The Friedel-Crafts Acylation reaction creates a complex between both the Lewis acid and the chloride atom from Chloride, an acid. The ion of acylium is created by the cleavage process of the C-Cl bonds in the complex.

The acylium ion carries an electric charge that is positive on the carbon and has resonance stabilisation. The acylium ion functions as an electrophile and reacts with the arene to produce the monoalkylated product.

10. Reimer-Tiemann Reaction:

Reimer Tiemann reaction can be described as a substitution reaction named after the chemists Ferdinand Tiemann and Karl Reimer. The reaction is employed to form an ortho-formylation C6H5OH (phenols).

If phenols, i.e. C6H5OH, is treated with CHCl3 (chloroform) in the presence of NaOH (sodium hydroxide), an aldehyde group (-CHO) is introduced at the ortho position of the benzene ring leading to the formation of o-hydroxybenzaldehyde. This reaction is referred to for its Reimer Tiemann reaction.


We hope you've discovered the necessary information from this piece. Stay tuned for more details on How to Study Organic Chemistry Class 12? Furthermore, find out more information about the study of each class and other tests.

A big tip before concluding

Learning to memorize is not an effective strategy for getting the highest marks. Instead, you must be able to comprehend each subject. Numerous aspects of Organic Chemistry are to be remembered, such as acronyms, reagent names, functional groups, functional groups nomenclature, and more. Beyond these, you must be aware of the rest of the areas.

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