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Tiny Diamonds Can Prevent Short-Circuits and Fires in Mobile Phone Batteries: Study

Mixing nanodiamonds into the electrolyte solution of a lithium ion battery slows dendrite formation to nil through 100 charge-discharge cycles

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Tiny diamonds prevent fires in phone batteries
Tiny diamonds prevent fires in phone batteries. Pixabay
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  • The researchers described a process by which tiny diamonds curtail the electrochemical deposition called plating
  • We anticipate the first use of our proposed technology will be in less critical applications
  • Battery buildups called dendrites  are one of the main causes of lithium battery malfunction

USA, August 28, 2017: Researchers have found that tiny diamonds (diamond particles 10,000 times smaller than the diameter of a hair) can prevent short-circuits and fires in lithium batteries widely used in various mobile devices from smartphones to laptops.

The new process that uses tiny diamonds can turn electrolyte solution – a key component of most batteries into a safeguard against the chemical process that leads to battery-related disasters.

In the study, published in the journal Nature Communications, the researchers described a process by which tiny diamonds curtail the electrochemical deposition, called plating, that can lead to hazardous short-circuiting of lithium ion batteries.

“We anticipate the first use of our proposed technology will be in less critical applications, not in cell phones or car batteries,” said Yury Gogotsi, Professor at Drexel University Philadelphia Pennsylvania, US.

“To ensure safety, additives to electrolytes, such as nano diamonds, need to be combined with other precautions, such as using non-flammable electrolytes, safer electrode materials and stronger separators,” Gogotsi added.

Also Read: Lithium Batteries can be charged faster in the near Future: Scientists

As batteries are used and charged, the electrochemical reaction results in the movement of ions between the two electrodes of a battery, which is the essence of an electrical current.

Over time, this re-positioning of ions can create tendril-like buildups almost like stalactites forming inside a cave.

These battery buildups, called dendrites, are one of the main causes of lithium battery malfunction.

As dendrites form inside the battery over time, they can reach the point where they push through the separator, a porous polymer film that prevents the positively charged part of a battery from touching the negatively charged part.

When the separator is breached, a short-circuit can occur, which can also lead to a fire since the electrolyte solution in most lithium-ion batteries is highly flammable.

To avoid dendrite formation and minimize the probability of fire, current battery designs include one electrode made of graphite filled with lithium instead of pure lithium.

The use of graphite as the host for lithium prevents the formation of dendrites. But lithium intercalated graphite also stores about 10 times less energy than pure lithium.

The new study showed that mixing nano diamonds into the electrolyte solution of a lithium ion battery slows dendrite formation to nil through 100 charge-discharge cycles.

The finding means that a great increase in energy storage is possible because dendrite formation can be eliminated in pure lithium electrodes.

The discovery is just the beginning of a process that could eventually see electrolyte additives, like nano diamonds, widely used to produce safe lithium batteries with a high energy density, Gogotsi noted. (IANS)

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NASA’s TESS Discovers New Worlds Only 5 Months After Its Launch

With four special cameras, TESS uses a detection method called transit photometry.

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TESS
TESS, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, is shown in this conceptual illustration obtained by Reuters on March 28, 2018. NASA sent TESS into orbit from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. VOA

A planet-hunting orbital telescope designed to detect worlds beyond our solar system discovered two distant planets this week five months after its launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida, officials said on Thursday.

NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, better known as TESS, made an early discovery of “super-Earth” and “hot Earth” planets in solar systems at least 49 light-years away, marking the satellite’s first discovery since its April launch.

TESS is on a two-year, $337 million mission to expand astronomers’ known catalog of so-called exoplanets, worlds circling distant stars.

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TESS Deputy Science Director Sara Seager. VOA

While the two planets are too hot to support life, TESS Deputy Science Director Sara Seager expects many more such discoveries.

“We will have to wait and see what else TESS discovers,” Seager told Reuters. “We do know that planets are out there, littering the night sky, just waiting to be found.”

TESS is designed to build on the work of its predecessor, the Kepler space telescope, which discovered the bulk of some 3,700 exoplanets documented during the past 20 years and is running out of fuel.

NASA expects to pinpoint thousands more previously unknown worlds, perhaps hundreds of them Earth-sized or “super Earth” sized — no larger than twice as big as our home planet.

Those are believed the most likely to feature rocky surfaces or oceans and are thus considered the best candidates for life to evolve. Scientists have said they hope TESS will ultimately help catalog at least 100 more rocky exoplanets for further study in what has become one of astronomy’s newest fields of exploration.

 

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An artist’s concept provided by NASA shows the Keplar Spacecraft moving through space. VOA

 

MIT researchers on Wednesday announced the discovery of Pi Mensae c, a “super-earth” planet 60 light-years away orbiting its sun every 6.3 days. The discovery of LHS 3844 b, a “hot-earth” planet 49 light-years away that orbits its sun every 11 hours, was announced on Thursday.

Pi Mensae c could have a solid surface or be a waterworld as the composition of such planets is a mixed bag, Martin Spill, NASA’s program scientist for TESS, said in a phone interview.

The two newest planets, which still need to be reviewed by other researchers, offer the chance for follow-up study, officials said.

Also Read: Parker Solar Probe of NASA Sends Back Its First Images

“That, of course, is TESS’ entire purpose — to find those planets around those brightest nearby stars to do this really detailed characterization,” Spill said.

With four special cameras, TESS uses a detection method called transit photometry, which looks for periodic dips in the visible light of stars caused by planets passing, or transiting, in front of them. (VOA)