Wednesday November 20, 2019

Flavours Attract Youth To Use E-Cigarettes: Research

The study published in the British Medical Journal Open, researchers reviewed 51 articles, including 17 published before 2016 and 34 published between 2016 and 2018

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E-Cigarettes
The use of E-Cigarettes among youth may be a gateway to future cigarette use, and nicotine is especially harmful to developing adolescent brains. Pixabay

Researchers have found that non-menthol flavours attract youth and adults to use e-cigarettes and contributes to multiple pathways linked to the higher use among youngsters.

The study published in the British Medical Journal Open, researchers reviewed 51 articles, including 17 published before 2016 and 34 published between 2016 and 2018.

“The use of e-cigarettes among youth may be a gateway to future cigarette use, and nicotine is especially harmful to developing adolescent brains,” said the study’s lead author Hannah Baker from the University of North Carolina.

“These facts, along with biomedical research linking vaping to multiple adverse health effects, make the recent precipitous increase in e-cigarette use among youth particularly alarming,” Baker added.

The researchers found that five studies indicates that the non-menthol flavours in e-cigarettes decrease the perception that e-cigarettes are harmful, particularly fruit and candy flavours.

Six studies indicate that flavours increase the willingness of youth and young adults to try or initiate the use of e-cigarettes. Seven studies showed that the flavours increase product appeal among adults, the study said.

According to the researchers, the five studies revealed that flavours are a primary reason for adults to use e-cigarettes.

E-Cigarettes
Biomedical research linking vaping to multiple adverse health effects, make the recent precipitous increase in use of E-Cigarettes among youth particularly alarming. Pixabay

“Consistent evidence shows that flavours attract both youth and adults to use e-cigarettes,” said the study’s researcher Adam Goldstein.

“Given the fact that nicotine is highly addictive and can affect brain development – as well as these clear findings that the impact of flavours on youth is strong and consistent, we believe that banning non-menthol flavours in e-cigarettes will help reduce the epidemic of youth e-cigarette use,” Goldstein said.

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“Among youth, flavours increase not only preferences for e-cigarettes but they also increase e-cigarette product appeal, willingness to use, susceptibility to use and initiation, as well as decrease e-cigarette product harm perceptions,” Goldstein added. (IANS)

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Report: Express Grieving Conditions for Sanitation Workers in Developing Countries

Authors of the report say sanitation workers in developing countries largely operate in the informal sector

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Developing Countries
Sanitation workers are the people who work in jobs such as cleaning toilets, emptying pits and septic tanks, cleaning sewage and manholes and operating pumping stations and treatment plants, but their Condition is not good in Developing Countries. Wikimedia Commons

A new report by leading health and safety agencies finds millions of sanitation workers in Developing Countries are forced to work under horrific conditions that put their health and lives at risk.

Sanitation workers everywhere occupy the lowest rung of society and are stigmatized and marginalized because they do the dirty work that other people do not want to do.

The report’s authors – the International Labor Organization, the World Health Organization, the World Bank and Water Aid – say they hope to raise awareness on the plight of sanitation workers and the dehumanizing conditions under which they are forced to work. For example, the report says that many sanitation workers aren’t given the safety training or equipment needed to protect them when handling effluent or fecal sludge.

World Health Organization spokesman Christian Lindmeier says sanitation workers make an important contribution to public health at the risk of their own lives. Poor sanitation, he says, causes more than 430,000 deaths from diarrhea every year and is linked to the spread of other diseases such as cholera, dysentery, typhoid, hepatitis A and polio.

“Sanitation workers are the people who work in jobs such as cleaning toilets, emptying pits and septic tanks, cleaning sewage and manholes and operating pumping stations and treatment plants.… Waste must be correctly treated before being disposed of or used. However, workers often come into direct contact with human waste, working with no equipment or no protection to remove it by hand which exposes them to a long list of health hazards and diseases,” Lindmeier said.

Developing Countries
A new report by leading health and safety agencies finds millions of Sanitation Workers in Developing Countries are forced to work under horrific conditions that put their health and lives at risk. VOA

Authors of the report say sanitation workers in developing countries largely operate in the informal sector. They labor under abusive conditions, have no rights or social protections and are poorly paid.

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The study calls on countries to rectify these wrongs. It urges governments to enact laws and regulations that improve working conditions for sanitation workers and protect their safety and health. It says sanitation workers must be given the equipment and training necessary for the safe, proper disposal of waste. (VOA)