Tuesday October 23, 2018

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Causes, Treatment and Prevention

Heartburn is reported at least once a month by 40% of the Americans and almost every day by around 7–10%

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease is simply known as heartburn. Wikimedia Commons
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease is simply known as heartburn. Wikimedia Commons
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  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is the medical name for heartburn
  • It can be caused by acidic food, or even insomnia
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux  is curable, the medicine depends on the frequency of heartburn

The condition of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease is more common a problem than we realize. Heartburn is reported at least once a month by 40% of the Americans and almost every day by around 7–10%. According to the World Gastroenterology Organization (2015), the prevalence of GERD worldwide is increasing. It is from 2.5% to 6.6% in Eastern Asia and 13.8% to 25.8% in North America. The reason is not entirely corroborated by facts but speculated that it might be due to obesity and dietary factor due to an unavoidable correlation between them

What is Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

The current understanding of the concept and terminology of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease or GERD is that it is a group of conditions sharing the similarity of gastroesophageal reflux (regurge of food contents or gastric acid from the stomach into the food pipe) causing troublesome symptoms or some other potential esophageal and extraesophageal diseases.

GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease can be caused by acidic food. Wikimedia Commons
GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease can be caused by acidic food. Wikimedia Commons
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Causes

The commonest disorder of this group is esophagitis, or an inflammation of the food pipe caused due to the reflux of the contents mentioned before, that erode the food pipe. Some amount of belching is of course physiological and normal. The trouble arises only when there is an excessive reflux.

The mechanism behind the reflux is the incompetence of a sphincter at the junction of the food pipe and the stomach. To delve slightly into the medical facts, the incompetence is majorly caused by transient relaxations (a vasovagal reflex) followed by the sphincter hypotension, or in some cases anatomical damage of the junction as in a hiatus hernia (herniation of the stomach through the diaphragm into the chest).

The other causes of esophagitis include excessive consumption of painkillers, infections (AIDS) or after drinking corrosive acids, household bleaching powder etc.,

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease risk factors

The factors or conditions listed below can further increase the uncomfortableness associated with the condition

  • Obesity

    Junk food can cause heartburns. Pixabay
    Junk food can cause heartburns. Pixabay
  • Pregnancy
  • Overeating
  • Consumption of excessive junk foods, coffee, chocolates and the like
  • Cigarette smoking and alcohol
  • Insomnia

The condition of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, occurs in conjunction with several other disorders, in the esophagus or away from the esophagus. This wide range of conditions include chronic cough and bronchitis, laryngitis, asthma, dental erosions, sleep apnea,  pharyngitis, pulmonary fibrosis, chronic sinusitis, cardiac arrhythmias, and recurrent aspiration pneumonia

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms
  • Pain in the epigastric region (upper central abdominal region)
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Heartburn and regurgitation( most often increased on bending, straining or lying down)
  • Water brash or increased saliva in mouth
  • Sensation of lump in throat
  • Chest pain (sometimes right sided)

And the condition is always not a simple one to treat. The Alarm symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease  are:

  • Painful swallowing of food
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Repeated Vomiting and indigestion
  • Non-visible Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a positive fecal blood test or sometimes iron deficiency anemia
  • Any visible mass/ swelling in the abdomen
  • Jaundice
  • Family History of any gastrointestinal malignancies

Also Read: 4 Ways to Beat the Risk of Heart Attack in your 30s

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Investigations

For the diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, the most recommended test is a 24-hour ambulatory monitoring of the pH levels. This test evaluates how often the acid from the stomach regurgitates into the food pipe and to find out if this acid is related to the symptoms. The food pipe or esophagus has a muscle at the entrance to the stomach to keep the food from coming back up into the esophagus. If this valve does not work properly, the symptoms of heartburn or pain occur. Endoscopy is done in those patients with the alarm symptoms

Complications

When the condition of esophagitis persists for a very long time, it can cause bleeding and strictures. Also, a condition called the Barret’s Metaplasia occurs that progresses over to Adenocarcinoma (cancer).

Can Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease be cured?

Drugs are available over-the-counter agents for milder symptoms. Antacids and histamine H2 antagonists decrease the symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Antiflatulents and adsorbents are given to reduce gaseous symptoms. Acid-lowering therapy like proton pump inhibitors would also be given, especially in patients affected by the condition of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease for a long time. This class of drugs: omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and pantoprazole show similar efficacy in suppressing or neutralizing the acid secreted. These medications are also available over-the-counter.

Also Read: Liquor in moderation could be good for heart

The management of the complications is a different strategy altogether. It is best advised to visit a physician when the milder form of symptoms occur and not to postpone the visit.

Drugs for Gastroesophageal Reflux depends upon the frequency of symptoms.
Drugs for Gastroesophageal Reflux depends upon the frequency of symptoms.

Another important point to be noted is that the drugs are recommended for milder symptoms, if and only if the prevention strategies mentioned below do not work. Long-term therapy with these drugs come with their own share of debilitating side effects. Hence, it is strongly advised to avoid overuse of the drugs, especially when bought over the counter.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Prevention

This methodology of approach is even better. Prevent the condition. Lifestyle and dietary modification is a good venture. Avoiding fatty foods and consuming less alcohol, coffee, avoiding meals before sleep and getting a refreshing sleep. In those who experience the symptoms at night, it is advised to sleep with their heads elevated a bit. Another major step towards is to exercise regularly and avoid becoming overweight or obese.

This article originally appeared at Same Condition- a patient to patient network. Here is the link of the article: https://www.samecondition.com/blog/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-causes-treatment-and-prevention/

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Obesity leads to 13 types of Cancer, including that of Pancreas and Esophagus: Study

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India with 14.4 million had the second highest number of obese children in 2015. Pixabay

New Delhi, April 20, 2017: Obesity leads to 13 types of cancer, including that of pancreas and esophagus, as fat cells affect the processes that regulate the growth of cancer cells in the human body, says a study.

Due to excess fat in the body, fat cells produce hormones and proteins, according to the study conducted by the United Kingdom’s Imperial College.

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Besides being released into the bloodstream, these are also circulated around the body and this is why they increase the risk of several different types of cancer.

Fat cells are also said to affect processes that regulate cancer cells’ growth.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), around 1.9 billion adults worldwide are overweight or obese, and with obesity linked to some 13 types of cancer, the problem of extra weight poses a serious threat to their lives.

Among the 13 types of cancer, which are believed to have strong connection with weight gain, are oesophageal (food pipe), pancreatic, liver, stomach, colon and rectum, gallbladder, lung, kidney and gynaecological cancer. Among women, breast, ovary or uterus cancer could occur.

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“The most common types include breast and colon, while the most difficult to treat include pancreatic, oesophageal and gallbladder cancer,” said the study.

Commenting on the study, Deep Goel, Director of Bariatric and Gastrointestinal Oncology Surgery at the BLK Super Speciality Hospital, said that obese had a greater risk of developing and also dying from several types of cancer.

“Let’s say, if there’s one normal-weight patient suffering from pancreatic cancer and another obese patient suffering from the same cancer of same stage, chances of an obese patient’s death are more over normal-weight patient,” said Goyal.

Stating that insulin is a very important part of how the body uses energy from food, Goyal said: “When people are obese, the level of insulin increases in the body which may help cancer cells to develop. Moreover, fat accumulated in the body changes the levels of sex hormones — oestrogen and testosterone, which again increases the risk of cancer.” (IANS)