Get subscribed to our newsletter
Get interesting updates to your email inbox.
By Gaurav Sharma
Following her coronation as national champion, an Asian Games bronze medallist and becoming the first Indian sprinter to reach the finals of a global athletics event at the tender age of 18 years, Dutee Chand was riding the wave of success with much elation.
Less than a fortnight before the start of the Glasgow games, the tiding wave quickly whip-lashed the Odisha-born athlete’s dream run and landed her as a forlorn figure caught in the mire of gender discrimination.
Humiliation & Passive Discrimination
Dutee Chand, like the South African sprinting sensation Caster Semenya, was heartbroken at the shocking news of her natural levels of testosterone, a natural growth hormone found in the bodies of all humans, matching levels of those found in males.
What followed was humiliation at the hands of reporters, fellow athletes and international sporting officialdom. The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), the world governing body for track and field events, banned the emerging athlete for failing the hormone test.
After her career was put on a hold for almost an year, the Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS) revoked IAAF’s findings and gave a fresh lease of life to her stifled young career, though not before side-lining her for almost an year-a considerable period in the short-spanning career of track and field athletes.
During the cataclysmic period, Dutee Chand missed both the Asian and the Commonwealth games and was advised to undergo a ‘corrective’ treatment, a reference to hormone suppression and genital surgery.
Alluding to the devastating impact the ruling had on her mental equilibrium and athletic performance, Dutee Chand told BBC, “I was completely shattered when I was banned. My performance deteriorated steadily. I was pushed to third position in the national athletics meet in Bangalore.”
History of Gender Testing
The decision by CAS to suspend IAAF’s “hyperandrogenism” rules (a case of excessive production of testosterone) for 2 years came in the backdrop of the organization of “Let Dutee Run” campaign by 5,646 signatories in tandem with media support.
However, the contentious issue of gender testing has been challenged by gender activists, biologists and researchers alike since the last decade. In Dutee Chanda’s case, Dr Payoshni Mitra was the vanguard who galvanized mass sympathy for the athlete, whose family belongs to a weaving background.
Historically, gender testing arose in the wake of men masquerading as women in international sporting events (the earlier known case of which was German high jumper Dora/Heinrich Ratjen in 1936 Olympics).
To prevent circumvention of men faking as women, the International Olympic Committee(IOC) initiated ‘gender verification’ in 1968. What began as an embarrassing dropping of underwears transmuted into a sophisticated checking of X and Y chromosomes.
As per the genetic system, XX stand for women and XY for men. However, classifying sex into two categories based on the combination of chromosomes means a denial or alienation of the “hermaphrodite” or the intersex people as part of the natural order of being.
Moreover, cases of genetic syndromes or mutations are not unheard of. In 1985, Spanish hurdler Maria Jose Martinez-Patino had to fight a three-year pitched battle for her right to compete as a female after she was told that she was an ‘XY’ male.
By the time Patino convinced the world that her Y chromosome was due to the insensitivity of her blood towards testosterone, her glory days were behind her. Between 1972 and 1984, 13 women failed the gender tests at Olympics, tests which were suspended by the time the 90’s era started except in cases of extreme suspicion.
In the 2006 Asian games, Indian middle distance runner Santhi Soundarajan failed the gender verification test and was subsequently stripped of her medal.
After Caster Semenya burst onto the sporting arena and won the 800 meters final at the World Athletics Championships in 2009 with a record margin, the IAFF gave in to public perception regarding her masculine looks and subjected her to gender tests (a move which drew much criticism from former athletes).
In 2011, the IAAF went a step further and asked an expert working committee to frame a plan for women with excess androgenic hormones, substances which generally define the gap between males and females.
However, what fails to meet the eye is the ambiguity surrounding what defines the ‘normal’ levels for men and women.
The IAAF, in conjunction with IOC, defined the upper limit of testosterone for females as 10 nanomoles per litre blood, based on which investigations could be launched into such allegations.
Here again, the IAAF failed to miss the crucial point that such a complaint could be launched by rivals with vested interest or an anomaly could erupt in the test itself. The question of whether the athlete is benefitted from elevated levels testosterone can be beguiling because, as seen in the case of Maria Jose Martinez-Patino, the high levels can act like a mirage, giving a false perception of reality. And meanwhile, the athletes become ineligible to compete.
Katrina Karkazis, a Stanford University bioethicist who has been tracking the cases of testosterone testing, smells a deeper rot of sexism and racism behind the incrementing cases of gender discrimination in sports.
“The Indian and black African women are often suspected of simply not conforming to white western standards of what a woman should look like. Think Serena Williams and the execrable talks surrounding her ‘masculinity’”, Karkazis says.
Increasingly, young women travel from the developing part of the world to the western shores in order to comply with the sport’s rules on what “normal” female genitalia should looks like. That women should be subjected to genital surgery and hormone therapy is discriminatory, keeping in mind that men athletes are never subjected to such intense gender scrutiny.
Moreover, institutionalised genital mutilation is a scary concept, something that Dr Payoshni Mitra affirms with.
As far as notions of possessing unfair advantages goes, professional sport has been inherently dominated by those wielding such natural gifts. From the eagle-like wingspan of Michael Phelps to the cheetah-like fast legs of Usain Bolt, sport has never been fair. It is a mix of both natural talent and physique and hard-work and effort that define a champion.
In this regard, the policy adopted by IAAF is not based on scientific evidence, but rather on “scientific consensus” that testosterone levels determine athleticism.
Although questions relating to the effect of testosterone persist, what cannot be denied is that the disqualification on such grounds encompasses broader issues of sexism, racism and discrimination.
Remember, the right language is what matters for your app in the first place.
Also Read: Deadliest Computer Viruses Of All Time
Disclaimer: (This article is sponsored and include some commercial links)
By- Joseph Collins
An energy meter, also known as a Watt-Hour Meter, is a device that monitors the level of electrical energy or gas consumed by users. Utilities are among the agencies that place these devices in various locations such as houses, businesses, organizations, and commercial properties to charge for the power consumed. You can always know how much is gas or electric cheaper by contacting a utility company.
Electronic Energy Meters
When compared to traditional mechanical meters, these types of measuring equipment are more accurate, have a faster processing time, and are more trustworthy. When attached to a source, it uses less power and begins measuring immediately.
Analog or digital meters are both possible. Analog meters transform energy to proportionate frequency or pulse rate, which is then combined by counters inside the device. A high-end processor directly calculates power in a digital electric meter.
Logic circuits combine the power to obtain the energy as well as for testing and certification purposes. The frequency or pulse rate is then calculated.
Follow NewsGram on Facebook to stay updated.
Smart Energy Meters
It is a cutting-edge metering technique that entails installing intelligent meters that read, process, and relay information to clients. It monitors energy usage, changes the supply to consumers remotely, and digitally manages the maximum energy usage.
For greater performance, smart metering systems make use of modern metering infrastructure system technology. These meters limit the number of times you have to go to the place to get your monthly reading.
In these smart meters, modems are utilized to enable communication technologies like phone, wireless, fiber cable, and power line communications. Another benefit of smart metering is that it eliminates the possibility of tampering with energy meters, which could lead to unlawful power usage.
An energy meter, also known as a Watt-Hour Meter, is a device that monitors the level of electrical energy or gas consumed by users. | Wikimedia
Working of The Meter
The conventional electric meter looks like a clock and keeps track of how much electricity you consume. A series of microscopic gears inside the meter moves as your home takes electricity from the power wires. The numbers on your meter that you notice when you look at it indicate the number of revolutions.
The quantity of electricity utilized determines the speed at which the rotations occur. The velocity of moving gas in the pipeline is measured by a gas meter. As the gas flow rate increases, the dials speed up.
ALSO READ: Electric Cars: The Newest Trend In India
How Often is Meter Read?
Unless the meter is a consumer-ready meter, the government will demand utility companies read user meters quarterly. If the consumer checks the meter, the utility is asked to read it at least once a year. Almost every month, many utilities try and read their customers' meters.
If the meter isn't read, the utility might issue an estimated charge based on the previous usage. Keep bushes and plants away from the meter and allow access to the meter reader if your meter is within your home. All utilities demand their meter readers to have an employment ID as a security measure.
Smart meters limit the number of times you have to go to the place to get your monthly reading. | Wikimedia
Responsibility of Meter
The utility provider is in charge of meter installation as well as the gas and electric lines that go up to the meter. The wires from the meter to the customer's premises are his responsibility.Please call your gas or electric utility if your meter is broken or displays evidence of tampering. Manipulation with a meter is prohibited and may result in service termination, legal punishment, or both.
Disclaimer: (This article is sponsored and include some commercial links)
A hilarious rhyme that children often chant cheerily while jumping around, Jack and Jill is another example of the dark history covered up in light-hearted rhyme. Instead of England though, this is a rhyme that sheds light on the history of France.
Unlike other rhymes, the rhyme is part fiction and part history, since only the first two lines can be taken as an allusion to the past.
"Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water,
Jack fell down and broke his crown,
And Jill came tumbling after."
King Louis XIV ruled over France in the late 18th century and was called out for treason. He had failed to uphold the economy of France. His spouse Marie Antoinette was an equally powerful influence in the monarchy but could not do anything when her husband was convicted.
King Louis XIV of France Image source: wikimedia commons
The French are famous for the guillotine, and Louis XIV was beheaded on this device. This act of executing a monarch is why the rhyme has the line "Jack fell down and broke his crown". The guillotine, at this point in history, was kept outside the city, and the journey to it was long and tedious. It was ideally located on a hill, so that the entire city of Paris could witness the execution of the accused.
Louise XIV is believed to have been dressed and taken on the long journey up to the guillotine, where his hair was cut off and he had to renounce his authority. He bid farewell to his friends and was followed up the hill by a crowd holding pikes and bayonets, to prevent his escape. He was then executed as the last monarch of France.
Death by guillotine was the most terrifying way to execute a criminal Image source: wikimedia commons
A few months later, when the hue and cry of Louis XIV's death has died down a little, but the political situation of France was no better, his wife, Marie Antoinette was also executed at the guillotine for her role in the fall of France. And this event alludes to the line, "Jill came tumbling after".
The rest of the rhyme is a fictional account of a moralistic idea for children, as a way to tell them to be careful of where they engage in play. Since a large part of the rhyme seems like a story of two children who have had an accident in play, that is how the rhyme has survived and the history behind it, has been forgotten.
Keywords: Marie Antoinette, Louise XIV, Guillotine, France, Nursery Rhymes, Monarchy