Monday February 19, 2018
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Gene showing opposite effect on some colorectal cancers

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New York: A gene that suppress the increase of many types of cancer is showing opposite effect in some forms of colorectal cancer, an Indian origin scientist said.

The research could lay the foundation for new colorectal cancer treatments.

“The gene is known as Sprouty2 has previously been shown to protect against metastasis, or the spreading of cancer to other parts of the body, in the breast, prostate and liver cancer,” said Sharad Khare, associate professor at University of Missouri School of Medicine in the US.

“However, our recent molecular studies found that this gene may actually help promote metastasis ( a spread of the disease to another organ) instead of suppressing it,” Khare noted.

For more than three years, Khare studied Sprouty2 in cancer cell models, mouse models and human biopsy samples.

Using different molecular methods, the researchers found that the gene functions differently in colorectal cancer than in other types of cancers.

Sprouty2 is known to block molecular circuits to prevent cancer cells from growing and spreading to other parts of the body.

However, the researchers found that in colorectal cancer, Sprouty2 may increase the ability of cancer cells to spread instead of suppressing it.

Khare believes this occurs when the gene is up-regulated or supercharged.

“This finding is a very significant step in our understanding of metastasis in colorectal cancer, but it’s important to note that we believe this phenomenon may occur in only a subset of colorectal cancer patients,” Khare said.

The findings appeared in the journal Oncogene.(IANS)(image:cellcan.com)

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Girls may inherit ovarian cancer gene from fathers

The researchers collected information about pairs of granddaughters and grandmothers and sequenced portions of the X-chromosome from 186 women affected by cancer

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A mutation on the X-chromosome may also advance ovarian cancer's age of onset by more than six years. Wikimedia Commons
A mutation on the X-chromosome may also advance ovarian cancer's age of onset by more than six years. Wikimedia Commons

Scientists have found a gene responsible for ovarian cancer that can be passed down from fathers to their daughters.

The study found that genes on the X-chromosome get potentially passed down through the father to his daughter, thus increasing the risk of ovarian cancer in girls.

A mutation on the X-chromosome may also advance ovarian cancer’s age of onset by more than six years.

“Our study may explain why we find families with multiple affected daughters: because a dad’s chromosomes determine the sex of his children, all of his daughters have to carry the same X-chromosome genes,” said Kevin H.

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Eng, Assistant Professor at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Centre in Buffalo, the US.

The study, published in the journal PLOS Genetics, stated that the genetic mutation inherited from the paternal grandmothers were also associated with higher rates of prostate cancer in fathers and sons as well.

The study found that genes on the X-chromosome get potentially passed down through the father to his daughter, thus increasing the risk of ovarian cancer in girls. Wikimedia Commons
The study found that genes on the X-chromosome get potentially passed down through the father to his daughter, thus increasing the risk of ovarian cancer in girls. Wikimedia Commons

The researchers collected information about pairs of granddaughters and grandmothers and sequenced portions of the X-chromosome from 186 women affected by cancer.

The results proposed that a gene on the X-chromosome may contribute to a woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer, independently of other known susceptibility genes, such as the BRCA genes.

This observation suggests that there may be many cases of seemingly sporadic ovarian cancer that are actually inherited, and may lead to improved cancer screening and better genetic risk assessment.

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However, future studies will be needed to confirm the identity and function of this gene.

“What we have to do next is make sure we have the right gene by sequencing more families. This finding has sparked a lot of discussion within our group about how to find these X-linked families,” Eng said.

“It’s an all-or-none kind of pattern: A family with three daughters who all have ovarian cancer is more likely to be driven by inherited X mutations than by BRCA mutations,” Eng noted. (IANS)

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