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The first fungal disease linked to rising global temperatures may have emerged, suggests a study published in the scientific journal mBio. Though only 715 people in the United States have contracted the new fungal infection so far, scientists say it may be an indication of what’s to come.
Three unrelated variants of deadly Candida auris cropped up simultaneously in South America, Asia and Africa, and it has spread to more than 30 countries in the past decade.
The fungus, which is difficult to treat, can be life-threatening in people with weakened immune systems. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said C. auris has been found to be resistant to all three of the most common antifungal drugs, and more than a third of people afflicted with invasive cases of the fungus die.
Mild fungal maladies like athlete’s foot are common, but severe fungal infections are relatively rare in healthy individuals. We are guarded from fungal infections by our strong immune systems and high body temperatures. Knock down one or both of those protective pillars, however, and humans start to look like a good host for opportunistic fungi.
Dr. Arturo Casadevall, a microbiology professor at Johns Hopkins University and lead author of the paper, suggested nearly 10 years ago that fungi would become more heat-tolerant as Earth became warmer, causing humans to lose the advantage that our high body temperatures provide. He said C. auris may be the first example — and it’s unlikely to be the last.
The researchers compared the heat tolerance of C. auris to that of similar species. While most of the species they considered don’t multiply above 35-37°C (95-98.6°F), C. auris can survive temperatures of up to 42°C (107.6°F).
That’s a problem for people because “we have very little ability [to adapt],” said Casadevall. “We can’t raise our temperature and walk around with a high fever all the time. But these organisms have the capacity to adapt to change, and for them, this change is happening gradually, because they can replicate every couple of hours.”
Alone, C. auris’ tolerance of high temperatures isn’t enough to prove that its rise is the product of climate change, since it isn’t clear how long ago the fungi developed their resistance to high temperatures. The researchers acknowledge that climate change is likely just one of many factors that led to its emergence.
“When it comes to the origins of Candida auris, it’s a complete mystery about where it came from still,” said Dr. Brendan Jackson, leader of the epidemiology team of the CDC’s fungal diseases branch, who was not involved with the research. “It’s clear there are huge environmental changes going on in the world, and for a fungal organism that has just come onto the scene within the last decade in multiple places in the world, it does make you think that something could be happening on a large environmental scale.”
In order to determine how large a role climate change played, the researchers suggest more careful analysis of C. auris’ ability to tolerate high temperatures. For example, if early outbreaks are less heat-tolerant than later outbreaks, that could indicate that the fungi are rapidly adapting to warmer temperatures.
Casadevall noted that C. auris has mostly affected people with weakened immune systems, which could mean that while the fungus has adapted to high temperatures, it still isn’t very good at infecting people. On the other hand, he added, it’s possible that there are other fungi that are highly infectious but can’t grow in higher temperatures yet.
If climate change created one new infection, Casadevall said, “we can’t prevent it from happening again. This is likely something that humanity is going to have to deal with. I do think that we could be better prepared if there were more monitoring of fungal diseases, more research into how fungi cause disease and more antifungal drugs.”
Jackson said the CDC has increased its efforts to inform the public about the seriousness of fungal infections, and new antifungal drugs are under development. Despite the increasing number of cases around the world, he emphasized that there’s no cause for alarm since C. auris poses little to no threat to healthy individuals.
“There’s a lot of fear that comes with an emerging pathogen like this,” said Jackson. “But this is affecting the sickest of the sick. I think it’s something to be on top of, but the average person does not need to be concerned about this in their daily life.” (VOA)
Afghans lodged more than 17,000 asylum applications in the EU in September, up from 10,000 in August and nearly twice as many as Syrians. This made Afghanistan by far the main country of origin, which Syria had been for seven years until July, the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) said.
Total applications in the EU exceeded pre-pandemic levels for the first time since the outbreak of Covid-19.
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EASO said about 71,200 applications for international protection were lodged in the EU in September 2021, up by a quarter from August and the most since November 2016.
For the first time since the outbreak of the pandemic, applications exceeded the last pre-pandemic levels in early 2020.
The rising trend in Afghan applications not only continued, but accelerated.
Applications by Afghans increased by a considerable 72 per cent, from about 10,000 in August to 17,300 in September. This increase partly reflected the evacuations that followed the Taliban takeover of Afghanistan in August.
Afghans were by far the largest group of applicants in the EU in September, with almost twice as many applications as by Syrians (9,100), who had been the largest group every month for seven years up to July 2021. While Afghans lodged the most applications since September 2016, their number was still less than half of the all-time high in November 2015.
the third largest group of applicants in SeptemberUnsplash
Also read: Afghan leaders meet in Geneva to start peace
Turkish nationals (3,000) were the third largest group of applicants in September, continuing to apply at the highest level on record.
Several other main nationalities recorded substantially more applications in September: Bangladeshis (2,800, a new high), Pakistanis (2,700), Albanians (2,100), Venezuelans (1,800), and Georgians and Tunisians (1,700 each). (IANS/PR)
(Keywords: Afghan, Syria, Bangladesh, Pakistan)
“When once you have tasted flight, you will forever walk the earth with your eyes turned skyward, for there you have been, and there you will always long to return.” – Leonardo DaVinci
International Civil Aviation Day is observed on December 7th to recognize the flying industry’s impact on modern society. In 1994, as part of ICAO’s (International Civil Aviation Organization) 50th-anniversary celebrations, the first International Civil Aviation Day was observed, and in 1996, the United Nations General Assembly declared December 7th as International Civil Aviation Day.
Aviation has revolutionized tourism and business forever, not to mention the cultural linkages that have been made possible. The purpose of this day is to emphasize the significance of civil aviation in social and economic development, as well as to highlight the unique role played by the International Civil Aviation Organization in assisting nations in cooperating and bringing a truly global transit network to reality. With the adoption of Agenda 2030 by the United Nations, a vow to reduce pollution with the eventual aim of a new era in global sustainable development, the role of aviation remains just as essential.
International Civil Aviation Day is observed on December 7th to recognise the flying industry’s impact on modern society. | Photo by Cédric Dhaenens on Unsplash
The theme of International Civil Aviation Day is changed every five years. For the whole four-year gap, one theme is continued. From 2020 until 2023, “Advancing Innovation For Global Aviation Development” is the theme. This theme will place a greater emphasis on innovation in all aspects of air transportation, with the organization supporting ideas through a more proactive and dynamic assistance strategy.
HOW IS IT CELEBRATED?
The International Civil Aviation Organization conducts a variety of activities and events throughout the day, including seminars, training sessions, and news announcements on international civil aviation topics. Governments, organizations, businesses, and even individuals support the ICAO.
Telling an aviation worker how much you appreciate them is one of the most obvious and heartfelt ways to express your gratitude. | Photo by Waldemar Brandt on Unsplash
HOW TO OBSERVE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION DAY?
- Thank a civil aviation worker: Telling an aviation worker how much you appreciate them is one of the most obvious and heartfelt ways to express your gratitude. Give an aviation worker a thank you and a pat on the back this December 7th, or you can show your appreciation for them by uploading posters on various social media handles.
- Get involved: There are various ways to become engaged with the ICAO if you’re enthusiastic about helping countries flourish socially and economically with the help of aviation. Organize meetings, events, and gatherings to discuss how we can work together to ensure no country is left behind.
(Keywords: civil aviation worker, United Nations, International Civil Aviation Organization, flying, International Civil Aviation Day)
By- Harris Scott
Business owners hardly have time to look into all aspects of a business operation, and accounting is one aspect. While small business owners might invest some time handling accounting services, it is indeed a big waste for owners of major enterprises. Regardless of the size of the business, your organization needs someone to look after the ledger.
Hiring an Accountant for your Firm - Things to Consider
When seeking out an accounting service, you have to opt for a professional with the level of experience you need. Here are things to consider when choosing an accountant.
- Neat and organized
Incomplete data entries and loopholes in the ledger are significant factors in slowing down the accounting process. If your accountant is not focusing on the job, chances are he will overlook important details. Such a discrepancy in the ledger book can mislead everything to a messy dead end. You never know that today’s entry would play a significant role in saving your company when people from taxation show up at your doorway. That is why only reputed accounting services can have an excellent eye for detail. Such a company focuses on the financial and success of your business.
- Handy in computer software
As per Aron Govil, the reliability of accounting has nothing to do with a high profile in computer science, but modern businesses hugely rely on technology to keep up with the latest trends. For example, if your competitor uses technology to manage the financial subject, you cannot stick to the traditional paper register. When the accountant on a computer gets efficient and accurate results quickly, the one with paper may lag due to continuous error. Even if he is not making any errors, the automatic calculation will consistently be faster than manual counting. You must look for such accounting services that can easily integrate various software on your accounting operations and utilize them seamlessly.
- Temporary or permanent accountant
An organization with a couple of accountants cannot take care of every financial detail. They might work with their trustworthy accountant for a long time, but a new business strategy could force them to reshuffle their positions. In this situation, they might need more accounts instead of an accountant. Looking into the type of business trait, you should decide on a service that suits your requirements. Well, it depends upon the business you are running and your budget; you need to figure out whether you need to hire a part-time accounting service or a full-time accounting agency. Along with the budget, your accounting operations also contribute to making these decisions; if you have a good amount of substantial accounting actions to take care of, then you must have a permanent accounting service.
Most businesses usually have accountants, but not all invest in accounting because they work with experts. As per Aron Govil, find an accounting service provider if you still cannot afford that facility. Hiring the right accounting agency is the most crucial aspect, as you will be putting financial responsibilities over the shoulder of professionals. So, try to find the best and most trustworthy accounting experts for your business. You can consider looking for them online by going through the reviews and their websites.
(Disclaimer: This is article is sponsored and includes some commercial links.)