Never miss a story

Get subscribed to our newsletter


×
Goldfish can survive without oxygen. Pixabay
  • Scientists at the University of Oslo and Liverpool revealed, how goldfish produce alcohol to survive harsh winters beneath frozen lakes without oxygen
  • Goldfish have evolved a set of enzymes that help them convert anaerobically produced lactic acid into ethanol
  • The crucian carp produce 50 to 100 mg alcohol per ml in their blood

London, August 13, 2017: A team of scientists has uncovered how goldfish survive the harsh winters beneath frozen lakes by producing alcohol.

Scientists at the Universities of Oslo and Liverpool said that during winters, the fish are able to convert anaerobically produced lactic acid into ethanol, which then diffuses across their gills into the surrounding water and avoids a dangerous build-up of lactic acid in the body.


This helps the fish and their wild relatives, crucian carp survive for days, even months, in oxygen-free water at the bottom of ice-covered ponds.

During their time in oxygen-free water in ice-covered ponds, which can last for several months in their northern European habitat, blood alcohol concentrations in crucian carp can reach more than 50 mg per 100 millilitres, which is above the drink drive limit in these countries, said Dr Michael Berenbrink from University of Liverpool in the research published in the journal Scientific Reports.

ALSO READ: Scientists in Peru Grow small Potato Plant in Mars Simulator influenced by Hollywood movie ” The Martian”

However, this is still a much better situation than filling up with lactic acid, which is the metabolic end product for other vertebrates, including humans, when devoid of oxygen, Berenbrink added.

The muscles of goldfish and crucian carp contain two sets of the proteins normally used to channel carbohydrates towards their breakdown within a cell’s mitochondria.

The second set is activated by the lack of oxygen and shows a mutation that allows channelling of metabolic substrates to ethanol formation outside the mitochondria.

This research emphasises the role of whole genome duplications in the evolution of biological novelty and the adaptation of species to previously inhospitable environments, said lead author Dr Cathrine Elisabeth Fagernes from the University of Oslo.

The ethanol production allows the crucian carp to be the only fish species surviving and exploiting these harsh environments, thereby avoiding competition and escaping predation by other fish species with which they normally interact in better oxygenated waters, Elisabeth noted. (IANS)


Popular

Unsplash

Music is the universal language that is spoken by all.

When it comes to our day-to-day life, there are several things which help us enhance our day with every step. One such thing is music. It enhances, motivates and boosts certain aspects of our personality in ways that may not come into notice. There have been several researches on how music affects human brain. Studies show it helps us in recovery and healing, and also, encouraging us to be better if exposed to the right kind and fit.

From kids to elderly, music as a commodity, can be consumed by all. It is the universal language that is spoken by each and every being, from animals to humans to plants, each respond to it in their own ways. Suffice to say, we are united by music and the effect it has over us. Plants, for example, grow better when exposed to good music. Many songs are being composed specifically to enhance and boost their growth. Same is the case for humans. For humans, the right kind of music can boost good health, physically as well as mentally. You might have noticed how in gyms, upbeat music is played. That is to channel energy into everyone present. It adds to the workout. Several researches around the world have shown better physical output when exposed to appropriate music. Fast paced songs with upbeat nature channeled speed and the slower ones slowed downs the listeners, without them noticing. The sub-conscious effects of music are continuously being studied.

Keep Reading Show less
Unsplash

Awareness is the key to heal.

As more and more people are acknowledging the importance of their mental well-being, the wave of awareness the acknowledgment has brought is unprecedented. It may not have paved a clear path towards complete healing but it certainly has shown the way. The awareness is the key to heal. Healing begins only after the problem is identified. Similar to physical illness, the identification of the problem area is the first step. Even in case of a minor wound, when we go to the hospital the nurse first locates the wound. They, then, ask how we got hurt and identify the nature of the wound. Only then, they clean, put ointment and wrap it up if it needs wrapping and protection from air and dust. Sometimes, that protection is not needed. The wound heals out in the open. Same goes when it comes to healing of a mental trauma or illness. Sometimes, we confine in professionals or our loved ones, in order to let it out and process it openly. Sometimes, the trauma reduces with time. In any way, being aware and vigilant is the way to go.

Being knowledgeable about life in general, opens many channels for you. Being knowledgeable about yourself, opens gates inside you that lead to spiritual and general awareness about the concept of self. And the inner awareness is not necessarily internal, it can be seen from the outside as well. When we have positive energy from within it radiates physically as well. Have you encountered someone who’s spiritually awakened and aware? Do they stand out in the crowd? There are prominent examples of people who have made their mark in history, there is Swami Vivekanada, his awakening has revolutionised generations, one live example we can witness is The Dalai Lama.

Keep Reading Show less
Photo by Wikimedia Commons

Game of Thrones taught us some significant lessons

Honestly, who hasn’t watched one of the epic series of HBO– Game of Thrones?

There’s no question that when the first episode of Game of Thrones was released on April 11, 2011, the youth population of the world became exuberant. The main reasons behind this reaction was, first, the theme of the show, and second, the hidden lessons which it put forward.

Keep reading... Show less