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Memory slips with age, but getting a fair amount of sleep every night and having a cheerful mood each day may help you stay sharp even when you grow old, suggests new research.
Poor sleep quality and a depressed mood are linked to a reduced likelihood of remembering a previously experienced event, said the study published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.
The researchers found strong associations between working memory and three health-related factors such as sleep, age and depressed mood.
Working memory is the part of short-term memory that temporarily stores and manages information required for cognitive tasks such as learning, reasoning and comprehension.
Working memory is critically involved in many higher cognitive functions, including intelligence, creative problem-solving, language and action-planning. It plays a major role in how we process, use and remember information.
The study found that age is negatively related to the “qualitative” aspect of working memory — that is, how strong or how accurate the memory is.
“Other researchers have already linked each of these factors separately to overall working memory function, but our work looked at how these factors are associated with memory quality and quantity – the first time this has been done,” said Weiwei Zhang, Assistant Professor at the University of California, Riverside in the US.
“All three factors are interrelated. For example, seniors are more likely to experience negative mood than younger adults. Poor sleep quality is also often associated with depressed mood”, Zhang added.
The researchers performed two studies. In the first study, they sampled 110 college students for self-reported measures of sleep quality and depressed mood and their independent relationship to experimental measures of working memory.
In the second study, the researchers sampled 31 members of a community ranging in age from 21 to 77 years. In this study, the researchers investigated age and its relationship to working memory.
The researchers are the first to statistically isolate the effects of the three factors on working memory quantity and quality.
Although all three factors contribute to a common complaint about foggy memory, they seem to behave in different ways and may result from potentially independent mechanisms in the brain.
These findings could lead to future interventions and treatments to counteract the negative impacts of these factors on working memory. (IANS)
There's no denying that the high levels of tension and worry accompany examinations. This tension, along with the stress and ongoings of daily life, may be quite exhausting for students. When we have a lot to learn but just a limited amount of time, studying for an exam can be difficult. While some people study faster and more effectively if they have a suitable study plan, many others end up studying less and worrying more about the outcome of the exam.
Luckily, there are tried-and-true methods for improving your memory and reducing tension before an exam. These strategies are especially useful for people who believe their natural memory isn't strong enough.
The following are five study hacks that will assist anyone in preparation for an examination.
#1 Make A Study Plan: Make a study plan before you sit down to take up a book and begin studying. It will provide a better picture of what has to be done and when. List the names of the subjects and topics, prioritise the importance of studying each subject, calculate the number of days until the exam, and strategically assign a topic to each subject. Plan out group study time and breaks, set aside study hours every day.
Make a study plan before you sit down to take up a book and begin studying. It will provide a better picture of what has to be done and when. | Photo by Glenn Carstens-Peters on Unsplash
#2 Organize The Study Area: When we are in a pleasant and comfortable setting, we are able to focus and learn at our best. Find the ideal place in the home, hostel, or room that has good lighting, fresh air, and is quiet. The best places to study are those with the least amount of distraction. To eliminate distractions, keep the environment as clear of unnecessary stuff as possible. While studying, turn off your phone or keep it on flight mode.
To eliminate distractions, keep the environment as clear of unnecessary stuff as possible. While studying, turn off your phone or keep it on flight mode. | Photo by Debby Hudson on Unsplash
#3 Speak Aloud While You Study: This is a typical tactic employed by people. The term used by psychologists to describe this concept is "production effect." This effect claims that if a person says something out loud, they are far more likely to remember it. So, if you're having trouble remembering a topic, repeat the crux of it aloud. You'll be amazed at how much better you'll recall this topic when it exam time.
Speak Aloud While You Study. | Photo by Priscilla Du Preez on Unsplash
#4 Remember To Take Regular Breaks: When the human brain is given breaks on a regular basis, it performs optimally. Studies have proved that studying in small intervals with frequent pauses is more efficient than studying for extended periods without breaks. Forcing ourselves to study while our minds are drowsy or inactive will simply exhaust it further. So, take regular pauses, go for a short walk, close your eyes or gaze out at a distance to relax your eyes and mind.
Take regular pauses, go for a short walk, close your eyes or gaze out at a distance to relax your eyes and mind. | Photo by Unsplash
#5 Check Previous Year Questions: After you have finished studying read over previous year's question papers. It will not only make us aware of how well prepared we are for the examination, but it will also provide us with a way to learn about the nature and format of exam question papers.
We're confident you'll pass with flying colours if you employ these helpful tricks. You've got it! Best wishes!
Keywords: exam, studying, corner, timetable, study, questions, students, rest
Chinese smartphone brand Xiaomi has maintained No 1 position in smartphone shipments in India for 16 consecutive quarters, the company has announced. Xiaomi maintained its lead in the third quarter (Q3) in India this year, shipping 11.2 million units for a 24 per cent share. According to the company, its revenue from overseas markets reached 40.9 billion Yuan during the third quarter of 2021, accounting for 52.4 per cent of total revenue.
"Despite the global shortage of key components, Xiaomi solidified its market position by optimising global market resource allocation and reinforcing its channels in accordance with local market conditions," the company said while announcing its Q3 results late on Tuesday. According to Canalys, Xiaomi's market share of smartphone shipments in the third quarter ranked No 1 in 11 countries and regions and among the top five in 59 countries and regions globally.
In the third quarter of 2021, despite the global shortage of key components, the Group's global smartphone shipments still reached 43.9 million. "For many of its new smartphones launched this year, over half of the users are new Xiaomi users. Xiaomi introduced the brand-new Xiaomi Civi Series in September 2021 and was well received by users," it informed. Overall, in the third quarter of 2021, Xiaomi's total revenue amounted to 78.1 billion Yuan, representing an increase of 8.2 per cent year-over-year.
Meanwhile, Xiaomi's global MIUI 30-day active user base has exceeded 500 million as of November 22. "During the third quarter of 2021, we continue to strengthen our core 'Smartphone × AIoT' strategy and advance in the premium smartphone market. We ranked 1st in terms of smartphone shipments in 11 countries and regions," said Xiaomi Corporation. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: revenue, countries, market, smartphone, xiaomi, chinese, third quarter
Electronic waste generated in the Commonwealth of Independent States and Georgia rose by 50 per cent between 2010 and 2019, roughly the world average, but overall just 3.2 per cent was collected and safely managed, well below the 17.4 per cent average worldwide, according to the UN's first report on Wednesday dedicated to the e-waste issue in the 12 former Soviet Union countries. The regional e-waste total jumped from 1.7 Mt to 2.5 Mt (an average 8.7 kg per citizen), with Russia generating the most e-waste in both absolute and per inhabitant terms.
The findings are published in the first-ever "Regional E-waste Monitor, CIS + Georgia," produced by the Sustainable Cycles (SCYCLE) Programme, co-hosted by the UN University (UNU) and the UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), in partnership with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). According to the study, the region's e-waste spans a variety of products but three categories dominate: temperature exchange equipment (e.g. heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration units), and large equipment (e.g. washing machines or ovens) and small equipment (e.g. kitchen equipment or vacuum cleaners) account for 77 per cent.
According to the study, the region's e-waste spans a variety of products but three categories dominate: temperature exchange equipment, and large equipment and small equipment | Flickr
The annual growth rate in the region has slowed in nearly all categories but remains positive. Only screens and monitors, and small IT equipment, show negative growth rates. The Commonwealth of Independent States plus region has 289.2 million inhabitants (2019). The most populous countries are Russia, (143.9 million inhabitants in 2019), Ukraine (41.8 million), and Uzbekistan (33.2 million). Product purchasing power parity (PPP) varies greatly, from $3,000 a year in Tajikistan to $26,000 per year in Russia. The amount of e-waste generated per inhabitant was highest in Russia (11.3 kg/inh) and lowest in Tajikistan (1.4kg/inh), strongly correlated with PPP. "E-waste constitutes one of the fastest growing waste streams in today's global environment and poses a significant threat to both health and sustainable development," said Ruediger Kuehr, Director of the Sustainable Cycles Programme (SCYCLE).
"However, few countries collect internationally comparable e-waste statistics, and many countries lack the capacity to collect e-waste data at both the regional and national level. We need this data to track changes over time, establish national and international policies, limit e-waste generation, prevent illegal dumping, and promote recycling. This Regional E-waste Monitor for the CIS + Georgia is the first of its kind, reviewing e-waste statistics, legislation, and management, created with the aim of enhancing understanding and interpretation of the problem and facilitating the environmentally sound management of e-waste.
Hazardous substances in the region's 2019 e-waste included at least 2.4 tonnes of mercury, 1.1 tonnes of cadmium, 8,100 tonnes of lead, and 4,000 tonnes of brominated flame retardant| Flickr
"Such a summary allows for international comparisons and contributes to the development of more effective regional e-waste management systems," he added. Co-author Kees Balde of the United Nations University underlined that managing e-waste could be an economic opportunity in the region by creating enterprises and thus jobs in the recycling sector. E-waste generated in the CIS + Georgia in 2019 alone contained 10 tonnes of gold, half a tonne of rare earth metals, 1 million tonnes of iron, 85,000 tonnes of copper, 136,000 tonnes of aluminum, and 700 tonnes of cobalt -- representing a total value of $2.6 billion in secondary raw materials. Meanwhile, hazardous substances in the region's 2019 e-waste included at least 2.4 tonnes of mercury, 1.1 tonnes of cadmium, 8,100 tonnes of lead, and 4,000 tonnes of brominated flame retardants -- threats to human and environmental health.
(Article originally published on IANSlife) (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: scycle, recycling, environment, sustainable, countries, equipment, waste, Independent States, Commonwealth