Thursday January 23, 2020
Home India 670 million i...

670 million in rural areas live on Rs.33 per day: SECC

0
//

poverty1

New Delhi: Seventy-five per cent of rural households in India have a monthly income of less than Rs.5,000 ($79), 51 per cent of households make a living from manual labour, 28 per cent (over 50 million) of households do not have mobile phones or any form of communication.

More than 70 million rural households face some form of exclusion, either from assets or socio-economic benefits, according to data released by the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) survey last week. As many as 833 million Indians, or 69 per cent of the population, live in rural areas.

The SECC report comes at a time when global credit rating agencies such as Moody’s have warned that slow growth in rural India may cripple the overall economy. Rating agencies have laid stress on speeding rural reforms.

Rural Poor and Sources of Income

More than half of rural households depend on manual labour for livelihood, and 75 per cent of the rural population, or 133.5 million families, earn less than Rs.5,000 per month.

“A preliminary analysis reveals a grim picture of rural areas with three in four rural households earning less than Rs.5,000 per month and almost 90 per cent of households have incomes of less than Rs.10,000 per month,” Himanshu (he uses only one name), an agricultural economist with Delhi’s Jawaharlal Nehru University wrote in Mint, citing the findings of the Arjun Sengupta committee (2007), which identified 77 per cent of India’s population as poor.

“Overlooked by the media, these numbers are very close to the estimates of poor and vulnerable derived from other estimates based on the consumption surveys of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO). Rs.5,000 per month per household with an average household size of five would also mean an income of Rs.33 per person per day in the rural areas,” wrote Himanshu.

Although it is not meant to be a comparison of poverty estimates, the SECC data reveals that about 670 million Indians in rural areas alone live on Rs.33 per day (75 percent of rural households is around 134,373,569 households; five members per household gives us a total of 671,867,845 people).

rural kutcha village

Poor housing quality

A little less than half of the houses in rural India are kuccha (not solid).

Having a pucca (permanent) house is an indicator of a higher standard of living.

Poverty and a low standard of living are reflected in asset ownership.  While 71 percent of village households have mobile phones, refrigerators and motor vehicles are not very common in rural households.

Education Levels

IndiaSpend recently reported how rural India has more illiterate people than the population of Indonesia. With 74 percent of families living on less than Rs.5,000 a month, this will not change immediately, which in turn will keep economic standards depressed.

Projects such as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna (PMGSY) and Swachh Bharat Mission are the major schemes for rural development in India.

Rural India continues to be trapped in a vicious circle of poverty.  A clue to the first step to break out of that cycle comes from what is called the graduation model, a global experiment that could become an anti-poverty guide for Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

(IANS/IndiaSpend)

Next Story

Teenage Pregnancy Leads to Poor Mental Health: Study

Pregnant teens more likely to have poor mental health

0
Teenage pregnancy
Researchers have found that women who get pregnant during their teenage years are more likely to have higher rates of substance use. Pixabay

Researchers have found that women who get pregnant during their teenage years are more likely to fall victim to poverty, have poorer mental health and have higher rates of substance use.

“Although teenage pregnancy has been declining in Canada over the past few decades, this does not mean that we have solved this social issue. The majority, 70 per cent, of teenage pregnancies in this country are unintended,” said reseacher Jamie Seabrook, Associate Professor at Brescia University College in Canada.

There are limited Canadian studies on teenage pregnancies, in particular looking at risk factors and birth outcomes compared to women who became pregnant during adulthood.

According to the study, published in the Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, researchers from Lawson Health Research Institute and Brescia University College, were able to take advantage of a large sample of pregnant women from Southwestern Ontario by accessing data from patients at London Health Sciences Centre.

Of the 25,363 pregnant women making up the total sample of the retrospective cohort study, 4.3 per cent (1080) were 19 years old or younger.

Teenage depression
Teenage pregnant women have a history of depression and had higher rates of depression during pregnancy. Pixabay

Teenage pregnant women were much more likely than older pregnant women to live in poor, disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Southwestern Ontario.

They were also more likely to have a history of depression and had higher rates of depression during pregnancy, with 10 per cent on medication while pregnant.

Looking at substance use, 41 per cent of teenage women smoked cigarettes, 13 per cent used cannabis and seven per cent drank alcohol during pregnancy, which was significantly higher than rates for older pregnant women.

Once adjusted for other medical, behavioural and economic factors, teenage pregnancy was not associated with a higher risk for premature birth or low birth weight compared to pregnancy for women ages 20-34 years. However, the infants had a higher risk of low Apgar scores.

An Apgar score, a test given to newborns soon after birth, indicates how well the baby is doing outside of the womb. Babies with very low Apgar scores are more likely to need assistance with breathing. However, Apgar scores have little correlation with the long-term health of the baby.

Contrary to findings in the United States, where teenage pregnancy is associated with a higher risk for preterm birth and low birth weight, these recent results suggest that geographical context, differences in social inequality and type of health care system are important.

Also Read- Researchers Explore Big Step to Make the Perfect Head of Beer

“There are so many factors associated with poor birth outcomes, and the advantage of our sample size and statistical modelling was that we were able to include key medical and behavioural factors which play a larger role than age,” said Jasna Twynstra, Associate Professor at Brescia University College.

“We need to target teenage mental illness, as well as their high substance use during pregnancy, to minimize the impact on their overall health and wellbeing,” said Seabrook. (IANS)