Tuesday December 10, 2019
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670 million in rural areas live on Rs.33 per day: SECC

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New Delhi: Seventy-five per cent of rural households in India have a monthly income of less than Rs.5,000 ($79), 51 per cent of households make a living from manual labour, 28 per cent (over 50 million) of households do not have mobile phones or any form of communication.

More than 70 million rural households face some form of exclusion, either from assets or socio-economic benefits, according to data released by the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) survey last week. As many as 833 million Indians, or 69 per cent of the population, live in rural areas.

The SECC report comes at a time when global credit rating agencies such as Moody’s have warned that slow growth in rural India may cripple the overall economy. Rating agencies have laid stress on speeding rural reforms.

Rural Poor and Sources of Income

More than half of rural households depend on manual labour for livelihood, and 75 per cent of the rural population, or 133.5 million families, earn less than Rs.5,000 per month.

“A preliminary analysis reveals a grim picture of rural areas with three in four rural households earning less than Rs.5,000 per month and almost 90 per cent of households have incomes of less than Rs.10,000 per month,” Himanshu (he uses only one name), an agricultural economist with Delhi’s Jawaharlal Nehru University wrote in Mint, citing the findings of the Arjun Sengupta committee (2007), which identified 77 per cent of India’s population as poor.

“Overlooked by the media, these numbers are very close to the estimates of poor and vulnerable derived from other estimates based on the consumption surveys of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO). Rs.5,000 per month per household with an average household size of five would also mean an income of Rs.33 per person per day in the rural areas,” wrote Himanshu.

Although it is not meant to be a comparison of poverty estimates, the SECC data reveals that about 670 million Indians in rural areas alone live on Rs.33 per day (75 percent of rural households is around 134,373,569 households; five members per household gives us a total of 671,867,845 people).

rural kutcha village

Poor housing quality

A little less than half of the houses in rural India are kuccha (not solid).

Having a pucca (permanent) house is an indicator of a higher standard of living.

Poverty and a low standard of living are reflected in asset ownership.  While 71 percent of village households have mobile phones, refrigerators and motor vehicles are not very common in rural households.

Education Levels

IndiaSpend recently reported how rural India has more illiterate people than the population of Indonesia. With 74 percent of families living on less than Rs.5,000 a month, this will not change immediately, which in turn will keep economic standards depressed.

Projects such as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna (PMGSY) and Swachh Bharat Mission are the major schemes for rural development in India.

Rural India continues to be trapped in a vicious circle of poverty.  A clue to the first step to break out of that cycle comes from what is called the graduation model, a global experiment that could become an anti-poverty guide for Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

(IANS/IndiaSpend)

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Here’s how you can Appear More Competent Through your Clothing

Secret to appear more competent hidden in your clothing

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Competent clothing
A richer clothing can help you look more competent. Lifetime Stock

People tend to instantly judge others as more competent if they come dressed in “richer” clothing, says a study that warned that such economic cues are hard to ignore.

In nine studies conducted by researchers, people rated the competence of faces wearing different upper-body clothing.

Clothing perceived as “richer” by an observer — whether it was a T-shirt, sweater, or other top — led to higher competence ratings of the person pictured than similar clothes judged as “poorer,” the researchers found.

Given that competence is often associated with social status, the findings, published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour, suggest that low-income individuals may face hurdles in relation to how others perceive their abilities — simply from looking at their clothing.

“Poverty is a place rife with challenges. Instead of respect for the struggle, people living in poverty face a persistent disregard and disrespect by the rest of society,” said study co-author Eldar Shafir, Professor at Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University in the US.

competent fashion
Competence is often associated with social status and it is reflected through clothing. Lifetime Stock

“We found that such disrespect — clearly unfounded, since in these studies the identical face was seen as less competent when it appeared with poorer clothing — can have its beginnings in the first tenth of a second of an encounter,” Shafir said.

The researchers began with images of 50 faces, each wearing clothes rated as “richer” or “poorer” by an independent group of judges.

Based on those ratings, the researchers selected 18 black and 18 white face-clothing pairs displaying the most prominent rich-poor differences. These were then used across the nine studies.

Participants were then presented with half of the faces wearing “richer” upper-body clothing, and the other half with “poorer” clothing.

The researchers found that across the studies faces were judged as significantly more competent when the clothing was perceived as “richer.”

Also Read- Here’s how People Themselves Become the Source of Misinformation

This judgment was made almost instantaneously and also when more time was provided.

When warned that clothing had nothing to do with competence, or explicitly asked to ignore what the person in the photo was wearing, the biased competency judgments persisted. (IANS)