Saturday December 7, 2019

Here’s How Gut Bacteria Absorbs Fat Leading to Weight Gain

A team of US researchers have found a molecule that helps synchronize the absorption of nutrients in the gut with the rhythms of the Earth's day-night light cycle

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health, weight gain, gut, bacteria
Those cells act as intermediaries between bacteria that aid in digestion of food and proteins that enable absorption of nutrients. Pixabay

A team of US researchers have found a molecule that helps synchronize the absorption of nutrients in the gut with the rhythms of the Earth’s day-night light cycle — a discovery that has far-ranging implications for obesity in affluent countries and malnutrition in impoverished countries.

Dr Lora Hooper and her research team at UT Southwestern found that the good bacteria that live in the guts of mammals programme the metabolic rhythms that govern the body’s absorption of dietary fat.

The team also found that microbes programme these so-called circadian rhythms by activating a protein named “histone deacetylase 3” (HDAC3), which is made by cells that line the gut.

Those cells act as intermediaries between bacteria that aid in digestion of food and proteins that enable absorption of nutrients.

The microbiome actually communicates with our metabolic machinery to make fat absorption more efficient.

“But when fat is overabundant, this communication can result in obesity. Whether the same thing is going on in other mammals, including humans, is the subject of future studies,” said lead author Dr Zheng Kuang, a postdoctoral fellow in the Hooper’s laboratory in the study published in the journal Science.

The study, done in mice, revealed that HDAC3 turns on genes involved in the absorption of fat.

They found that HDAC3 interacts with the biological clock machinery within the gut to refine the rhythmic ebb and flow of proteins that enhance absorption of fat.

health, weight gain, gut, bacteria
the good bacteria that live in the guts of mammals programme the metabolic rhythms that govern the body’s absorption of dietary fat. Pixabay

This regulation occurs in the daytime in humans, who eat during the day, and at night in mice, which eat at night.

“Our results suggest that the microbiome and the circadian clock have evolved to work together to regulate metabolism,” said Hooper.

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Disrupting the interactions between the microbiota and the body’s clock could make us more likely to become obese.

“These disruptions happen frequently in modern life when we take antibiotics, work overnight shifts, or travel internationally. But we think that our findings might eventually lead to new treatments for obesity – and possibly malnutrition – by altering the bacteria in our guts,” the researchers mentioned. (IANS)

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Reduction in Air Pollution May Increase Life-Expectancy: Study

Findings of a Research indicate almost immediate and substantial effects on health outcomes followed reduced exposure to air pollution

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Pollution
Fortunately, reducing air Pollution can result in prompt and substantial health gains. Pixabay

Reductions in Air Pollution yielded fast and dramatic impacts on health-outcomes, as well as decreases in all-cause morbidity, a new study suggests.

The study, published in the journal Annals of the American Thoracic Society, reviewed interventions that have reduced air pollution at its source. It looked for outcomes and time to achieve those outcomes in several settings, finding that the improvements in health were striking.

Starting at week one of a ban on smoking in Ireland, for example, there was a 13 per cent drop in all-cause mortality, a 26 per cent reduction in ischemic heart disease, a 32 per cent reduction in stroke, and a 38 per cent reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interestingly, the greatest benefits in that case occurred among non-smokers.

“We knew there were benefits from pollution control, but the magnitude and relatively short time duration to accomplish them were impressive,” said lead author Dean Schraufnagel from the American Thoracic Society in the US.

“Our findings indicate almost immediate and substantial effects on health outcomes followed reduced exposure to air pollution. It’s critical that governments adopt and enforce WHO guidelines for air pollution immediately,” Schraufnagel added.

Pollution
Reductions in Air Pollution yielded fast and dramatic impacts on health-outcomes, as well as decreases in all-cause morbidity, a new study suggests. Pixabay

According to the researchers, In the US a 13-month closure of a steel mill in Utah resulted in reducing hospitalisations for pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis and asthma by half.

School absenteeism decreased by 40 per cent, and daily mortality fell by 16 per cent for every 100 µg/m3 PM10 (a pollutant) decrease.

Women who were pregnant during the mill closing were less likely to have premature births.

A 17-day ‘transportation strategy,’ in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1996 Olympic Games involved closing parts of the city to help athletes make it to their events on time, but also greatly decreased air pollution.

In the following four weeks, children’s visits for asthma to clinics dropped by more than 40 per cent and trips to emergency departments by 11 per cent. Hospitalizations for asthma decreased by 19 per cent.

WHO
Findings of the Study indicate almost immediate and substantial effects on health outcomes followed reduced exposure to air pollution. It’s critical that governments adopt and enforce WHO guidelines for air pollution immediately. Wikimedia Commons

Similarly, when China imposed factory and travel restrictions for the Beijing Olympics, lung function improved within two months, with fewer asthma-related physician visits and less cardiovascular mortality.

“Fortunately, reducing air pollution can result in prompt and substantial health gains. Sweeping policies affecting a whole country can reduce all-cause mortality within weeks,” Schraufnagel said.

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Local programmes, such as reducing traffic, have also promptly improved many health measures, said the study. (IANS)