New York, Feb 20, 2017: People living in big cities with a large density of population are more likely to prefer long-term romantic relationships, have fewer children and invest more in education, suggesting that they value quality over quantity, researchers say.
The findings showed that urban citizens are more likely to adopt a ‘slow life strategy’, contrary to the popular notion that crowded places are chaotic and socially problematic.
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“People who live in dense places seem to plan for the future more, prefer long-term romantic relationships, get married later in life, have fewer children and invest a lot in each child. They generally adopt an approach to life that values quality over quantity,” said lead author Oliver Sng, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Michigan.
In environments where population density is low and there is thus relatively little competition for available resources, there are few costs but lots of advantages to adopting a ‘fast’ strategy.
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On the other hand, when the environment gets crowded, individuals have to compete vigorously with others for the available resources and territory, the researchers said.
“So a slow strategy — in which one focuses more on the future and invests in quality over quantity — tends to enhance the reproductive success of individuals in high-density environments,” added Steven Neuberg Professor at Arizona State University.
For the study, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the team used data from nations around the world and the 50 US states.
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In a series of experiments — for example, in which people read about increasing crowdedness or heard sounds of a crowded environment — they found that perceptions of crowdedness cause people to delay gratification and prefer slower, more long-term, mating and parenting behaviours. (IANS)
Savitribai Phule was the first female teacher of the first women’s school in India
Savitribai Phule is regarded as a crucial asset in the social reform movement in Maharashtra
Savitribai Phule started her own school for girls education in Pune in 1848
Savitribai Phule is India’s first Modern feminist and a well-known social reformer who along with her husband, Jyotirao Phule played a vital role in raising the women’s rights in India during the British Rule. She was the first female teacher of the first women’s school in India and also considered as the pioneer of modern Marathi poetry. In 1852, Savitribai Phule opened a school for Untouchable girls which were a great challenge to take at that time.
Savitribai Phule was born on 3 January 1831 in Naigaon, Maharashtra, British India. She was married to 12-year-old Jyotirao Phule at the age of nine. Savitribai Phule is regarded as a crucial asset in the social reform movement in Maharashtra.
Battling for women education
Savitribai Phule fought for women’s education from the cultural patterns of the male-dominated society as a mission of her life. She worked towards tackling some of the then major social issues like women’s liberation, removal of untouchability and widow remarriages. Due to her efforts for women empowerment in the society, Savitribai Phule used to be followed by orthodox men and was abused by them in obscene language. People would target her with rotten eggs, cow dung, tomatoes, stones but she ignored all that, just to reach her school. After suffering so much, she once decided to give up but her husband, Jyotiba Phule came in full support for her. Jyotiba Phule encouraged his wife to continue with her cause.
But still, both husband and wife faced fierce resistance from the orthodox elements of society. Savitribai Phule got herself admitted to a training school and came out with flying colours with another Muslim lady, Fatima Sheikh. After that, she started her own school for girls education in Pune in 1848. Although, the response Savitribai Phule got was not that much uplifting but she was determined by what she was doing.
With the passage of time, people started to accept them and hence both husband and wife were able to open 5 more schools in the year 1848 itself. Taking a note of Savitribai Phule’s hard work, British government honoured her for her educational work. Jyotiba and Savitribai were also opposed to idol worship. For their work, both husband and wife were socially isolated and were attacked by the people whom they questioned.
The next big step that she took was to take a stand for widows. In those days, if a man used to die of old age or some sickness and the girls they had married were left, widows. The windows were treated like an unwanted piece of dump in the society. Widow’s head was shaved and they were not allowed to use any cosmetics that may make them look beautiful. Such a condition of widows moved Savitribai Phule and her husband. Thus, they went on for a protest to stop barbers from shaving the heads of widows.
Here are some of the facts related to the life of Savitribai Phule and her husband, Jyotirao Phule during there struggling for various social causes.
In 1897, Savitribai Phule with the full support of her son, Yashwantrao Gupta, opened a clinic to treat those affected by the pandemic of the bubonic plague when it appeared in the area around Nallasopara. As per records, she used to feed two thousand children every day during the time of the epidemic.
Two books of her poems were published posthumously, Kavya Phule (1934) and Bavan Kashi Subodh Ratnakar (1982). Savitribai Phule wrote many poems against discrimination and advised to get educated. Being a poet and a philosopher and wrote on the importance of education and knowledge and removal of caste discrimination.
In 2015, the University of Pune was renamed as Savitribai Phule Pune University to her honour deeds.
Savitribai Phule died on 10 March 1897 while serving a plague patient.
Google India Celebrate her Birthday January 3, 2017, with Doodle.
Savitribai Phule was herself a victim of child marriage as she was married to Jyotirao Phule when she was only 12 years old.
Savitribai Phule opened ‘Infanticide prohibition house’ care centre for pregnant rape victims and helped them to deliver their babies. She put up boards on streets about the “Delivery Home” for women, who were forced for their pregnancy. The delivery home was called “Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha”.
Savitribai Phule worked towards abolishing the caste-based and gender-based discrimination in the Indian society.
In 1852, Jyotirao Phule and Savitribai Phule were felicitated by the government for their commendable efforts in the field of education and other social causes.
After her marriage, Savitribai Phule enrolled herself in a training centre at Ms Farar’s Institution at Ahmednagar and in Ms Mitchell’s school in Pune.
Savitribai Phule fought against all forms of social inequalities for any section of the society. They even moved by the plight of untouchables in the society. As untouchables were not allowed to take out water from the wells, meant for the upper caste. So, Savitribai Phule and Jyotiba Phule started their own reservoir of water for the untouchables in the vicinity of their house.