Friday February 21, 2020

Know About the Adverse Health Effects of Smoking Hookah

Smoking hookah may increase heart attack, stroke risk

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Hookah
Tobacco smoke from hookah can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. Pixabay

Researchers have found that tobacco smoke from a hookah caused blood to function abnormally and be more likely to clot and quickly form blood clots, which can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke.

The study, published in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, found that tobacco smoke caused blood clots to form within an average of about 11 seconds, compared to an average of five minutes for clotting without exposure to hookah smoke.

Exposure to the hookah smoke also caused other abnormalities related to the way the blood flows, the research added. Some studies have found that the smoke emitted from one hookah tobacco smoking episode contains significantly more harmful chemicals compared to a single cigarette.

Hookah
Hookah smoking, which is becoming more popular in Western countries, is perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Pixabay

“Our findings provide new evidence that hookah smoking is as unhealthy – if not more so – than traditional cigarettes. “Smoking a hookah, cigarettes, e-cigarettes or other forms of tobacco all increase your risk for heart disease and stroke,” said study researcher Fadi Khasawneh from University of Texas in the US.

In this study, researchers exposed mice to smoke from a smoking hookah’s machine that mimicked real-life smoking habits.

The smoking machine used 12 grams of commercially available, flavoured tobacco that included tobacco, glycerin, molasses and natural flavour with nicotine and tar. Researchers then compared platelet activity among the exposed versus the unexposed mice.

The study simulated the type of nicotine exposure that occurs with smoking a hookah, which the researchers verified by measuring the levels of cotinine, the nicotine metabolite.

In May 2019, the American Heart Association published a Scientific Statement, “Water Pipe Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease Risk,” to analyse available research on the health effects.

The statement noted that tobacco smoking results in inhaling significant levels of toxic chemicals such as carbon monoxide and particulates from tobacco that can harm blood vessels, the heart and lungs, as well as creating a dependence on nicotine.

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This study provides additional evidence that, contrary to popular belief, smoking hookahs adversely affects cardiovascular health.

“Water pipe smoking, which is becoming more popular in Western countries, is perceived as less harmful than cigarettes, yet hookahs carry a toxic profile that is thought to be comparable or to even exceed that of traditional cigarettes,” Khasawneh added. (IANS)

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Know About the Side Effects of Using Cannabis

Does smoking marijuana affect your sperm count?

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Cannabis
Cannabis is by far the most widely cultivated, trafficked and abused illicit drug. Pixabay

Cannabis is by far the most widely cultivated, trafficked and abused illicit drug. Cannabis is a generic term used to denote the several psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis sativa. The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is THC.

Dr Dushyant Nadar, Director & Head of Department, Urology & Renal Transplant, Fortis Hospital, Noida shares more information:

The geographical spread of those seizures is also global, covering practically every country of the world. About 147 million people, 2.5 per cent of the world population, consume marijuana (annual prevalence) compared with 0.2% consuming cocaine and 0.2 percent consuming opiates. The use of cannabis can cause some serious side effects.

Acute health effects of cannabis use

Marijuana impairs cognitive development (capabilities of learning), including associative processes Marijuana impairs psychomotor performance in a wide variety of tasks, such as motor coordination, divided attention, and operative tasks of many types. Human performance on complex machinery can be impaired for as long as 24 hours after smoking as little as 20 mg of THC in weed. There is an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents among persons who drive when intoxicated by weed.

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Cannabis impairs cognitive development (capabilities of learning). Pixabay

Chronic health effects of cannabis use

Selective impairment of cognitive functioning which include the organization and integration of complex information involving various mechanisms of attention and memory processes.

Prolonged use may lead to greater impairment, which may not recover with cessation of use, and which could affect daily life functions; Development of a drug dependence syndrome characterized by a loss of control over cannabis use is likely in chronic users; Weed use can exacerbate schizophrenia in affected individuals; Epithelial injury of the trachea and major bronchi is caused by long-term ,marijuana smoking; Airway injury, lung inflammation, and impaired pulmonary defense against infection from persistent cannabis consumption over prolonged periods; Heavy cannabis consumption is associated with a higher prevalence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and a higher incidence of acute bronchitis than in the non-smoking cohort

Cannabis
Cannabis use can exacerbate schizophrenia in affected individuals. Pixabay

Effect of cannabis on male infertility

Infertility affects 10-15% of couples, and it has been estimated that a male factor is responsible in approximately half of these cases. Male infertility is diagnosed with the analysis of several semen parameters, such as the number of total sperm, sperm motility, and percentage of sperm cells with a normal morphology. It is known that marijuana, the commonest recreational drug of abuse, has adverse effects on male reproductive physiology. Its use is associated with impotence, decreased testosterone plasma level, impairment of spermatogenesis, production of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology, reduction of sperm motility and viability and, more recently, with the occurrence of non-seminoma germ cell tumors.

The biological mechanisms by which marijuana affects semen quality and hormone levels are not fully known. The active component of marijuana, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), binds to the human cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are found in the anterior pituitary but have also been identified in the testis, vas deferens, and human sperm cells, leading to a dose-dependent decreased sperm motility and decreased mitochondrial activity in spermatozoa when activated.

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This makes it possible for marijuana to affect hormone levels and spermatogenesis, as well as the mature sperm cells. A study found that men who used marijuana have an unhealthier lifestyle and health behavior, are often smokers, consume more alcohol, had a higher caffeine intake, were more likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease, and were more likely to have used recreational drugs other than marijuana. (IANS)