Saturday January 25, 2020

Heart Attack Patients Get Safer, Faster Lab Scores That Diagnose Diseases

Within one month of the emergency department visits, 727 heart attacks or deaths in patients occurred.

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Faster, safer lab score to diagnose heart attacks developed. Pexels

Researchers have developed a simple laboratory score which is safer and faster at diagnosing patients who visit the emergency department with heart attack symptoms.

The findings, published in the CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal), suggest that the score can also identify patients at risk of subsequent heart issues after discharge.

“We have developed a simple lab score that is superior to using cardiac troponin alone for the identification of patients at low and high risk for heart attack or death at emergency department presentation,” said co-author Peter Kavsak from the McMaster University in Ontario, Canada.

“This lab score may reduce both the number of blood tests and the time spent in the emergency department for chest pain patients,” Andrew Worster, Professor at the varsity, said.

The team combined common laboratory blood tests available at several hospitals around the world to create a single laboratory score. Pixabay
The team combined common laboratory blood tests available at several hospitals around the world to create a single laboratory score. Pixabay

For the study, the team combined common laboratory blood tests available at several hospitals around the world to create a single laboratory score or clinical chemistry score, to diagnose a heart attack.

These blood tests are part of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) list of essential in vitro diagnostic tests for health care facilities with clinical laboratories.

The researchers validated the clinical chemistry score as a predictor of heart attacks or deaths within 30 days, using the data on 4,245 patients from emergency department studies in four countries — Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Germany.

Within one month of the emergency department visits, 727 heart attacks or deaths in patients occurred.

blood tests are part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of essential in vitro diagnostic tests for health care facilities with clinical laboratories.
blood tests are part of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) list of essential in vitro diagnostic tests for health care facilities with clinical laboratories. Pixabay

A negative (or low-risk) clinical chemistry score at emergency department presentation missed only one of these events compared with up to 25 missed heart attacks or deaths when using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin test alone.

Also Read: Microsoft, Apollo Hospitals to use AI for Cardiac Diseases

A positive (or high-risk) clinical chemistry score also identified about 75 per cent of the patients at high risk of heart attacks or deaths when positive compared with a low of 40 per cent detected when the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin test alone was positive.

The researchers suggest the score can be useful for standardising diagnoses and improving safety. (IANS)

Next Story

Babies in ICU More Likely to Get Protected from Parental Bacteria: Study

The researchers selected for study 190 newborn babies admitted to two NICUs at Johns Hopkins-affiliated hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland, between November 2014 and December 2018

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To reduce the spread of Bacteria, the researchers turned to a simple regimen for mothers and fathers to follow while their Babies are in intensive care. Pixabay

Researchers have developed and tested a relatively simple strategy for reducing the chance of parents exposing their babies in the NICU to one of the most commonly diagnosed and potentially deadly microbial scourges in a hospital: Staphylococcus aureus.

“Traditional procedures for preventing hospital-acquired Staph infections in the NICU have primarily focused on keeping staff and facilities as sterile as possible,” said study researcher Aaron Milstone from Johns Hopkins University in the US.

“Our study is among the first to focus on parents as a source of the bacteria and then test the effectiveness of an intervention to combat the problem,” Milstone added.

According to the researchers, Staphylococcus aureus infections in the NICU not only threaten a sick or premature infant’s survival but their neurological development as well.

In a 2015 study, Milstone and others estimated that there are more than 5,000 cases of invasive such infections each year in NICUs across the US and that 10 per cent of the children will likely die before hospital discharge.

To reduce the spread of Staphylococcus aureus, the researchers turned to a simple regimen for mothers and fathers to follow while their child is in intensive care.

The preventive measure includes the application of an antibiotic (mupirocin) ointment into the nose and skin cleansing with a wipe containing two per cent chlorhexidine gluconate, an antiseptic widely used on patients to remove surface bacteria around a surgical site before an operation.

The Treating Parents to Reduce NICU Transmission of Staphylococcus (TREAT Parents) clinical trial was conducted to test the proposed strategy’s effectiveness.

Babies
Researchers have developed and tested a relatively simple strategy for reducing the chance of parents exposing their babies in the NICU to one of the most commonly diagnosed and potentially deadly microbial scourges in a hospital: Staphylococcus aureus. Pixabay

The researchers selected for study 190 newborn babies admitted to two NICUs at Johns Hopkins-affiliated hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland, between November 2014 and December 2018.

Each of the infants had at least one parent who tested positive for the bacteria when screened at the time of their child’s entry into the NICU.

Baseline S. aureus counts were done for the infants at the same time.

The parents of 89 babies self-administered the antibiotic nasal ointment twice a day for five days and cleaned designated skin areas with antiseptic wipes for the same time period.

The control group, consisting of the remaining 101 parental couples, used identically packaged placebo treatments of petroleum jelly and non-antiseptic wipes.

Both sets of babies were monitored for Staphylococcus colonization until discharge from the NICU. Bacteria recovered from the infants were analyzed to determine if they were the same strain as seen in at least one parent.

Among the 190 infants studied overall, 42, or about 22 per cent, acquired S. aureus that matched bacteria recovered from either their mother or father, or from both parents. In this group, four babies had MRSA strains acquired from a parent.

Babies
The study is among the first to focus on parents as a source of the bacteria to their babies and then test the effectiveness of an intervention to combat the problem. Pixabay

Of the 101 babies with parents in the control group, 29 per cent had parentally acquired bacteria compared with only 13 of the 89 babies whose parents were given actual antibiotic ointment and antiseptic wipes to use.

ALSO READ: Tips On How To Write a Plagiarism Free Essay

“These results from our preliminary trial indicate that treatment with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine wipes may significantly reduce the number of infants in the NICU who will get S. aureus from contact with a parent,” Milstone said. (IANS)