Friday January 24, 2020

Heart-health Behaviour Helps Reduce Risk of Diabetes

Community outreach is essential to educating people about prevention and helping them start healthy habits

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Diabetes
According to the researchers, these novel findings may provide the basis for new therapies for patients who have heart disease complicated by diabetes. Pixabay

If you are suffering from diabetes, then following some lifestyle and health factors may prove to be good for your heart and can help prevent disorders, says a new study.

The study showed that individuals who were in the recommended, ideal ranges for at least four of Life’s Simple seven health factors had a 70 per cent lower risk of developing diabetes over the next 10 years.

The Life’s Simple seven health factors include maintaining healthy blood pressure, glucose levels and cholesterol, eating a healthy diet, exercising at least 150 minutes per week, not smoking and maintaining a healthy weight, said the paper published in the journal Diabetologia.

“This research adds to our collective understanding about how physicians can help their patients prevent a number of serious diseases, including heart disease, cancer and now diabetes,” said K. Craig Kent, at The Ohio State University College in the US.

In addition, those in normal blood glucose levels who attained four or more guideline factors had an 80 per cent lower risk of developing diabetes, whereas those who were already diabetic or prediabetic and met four of the factors had no change in lowering their risk for diabetes, said Joshua J. Joseph, Assistant Professor at the varsity.

Diabetes
Representational image. Pixabay

For the study, the researchers included 7,758 participants and used the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple seven as a guide for measuring heart health among the group.

“Healthy people need to work to stay healthy. Follow the guidelines. Don’t proceed to high blood sugar and then worry about stopping diabetes. By that point, people need high-intensity interventions that focus on physical activity and diet to promote weight loss and, possibly, medications to lower the risk of diabetes,” said Joseph.

Also Read- AI App With Microsoft Azure to Tackle Malnutrition in India

Community outreach is essential to educating people about prevention and helping them start healthy habits.

Furthermore, getting help to quit smoking or finding physical activities and healthy foods can be key to maintaining them long-term and preventing future health problems, the study noted. (IANS)

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Drugs That Treat Arthritis in Dogs Can Kill Cancer Cells: Study

Drug for arthritis in dogs can fight cancer in people

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Cancer Cells
Drugs for diabetes, inflammation, alcoholism and even for treating arthritis in dogs can also kill cancer cells. Pixabay

Drugs for diabetes, inflammation, alcoholism — and even for treating arthritis in dogs — can also kill cancer cells in the lab, according to a new health news and study.

The researchers systematically analysed thousands of already developed drug compounds and found nearly 50 that have previously unrecognised anti-cancer activity.

The findings, which also revealed novel drug mechanisms and targets, suggest a possible way to accelerate the development of new cancer drugs or repurpose existing drugs to treat cancer.

“We thought we’d be lucky if we found even a single compound with anti-cancer properties, but we were surprised to find so many,” said study researcher Todd Golub from Harvard University in the US.

Cancer Cells
Most of the non-oncology drugs that killed cancer cells in the study did so by interacting with a previously unrecognized molecular target. (Representational Image). Pixabay

The study, published in the journal Nature Cancer, yet to employ the Broad’s Drug Repurposing Hub, a collection that currently comprises more than 6,000 existing drugs and compounds that are either FDA-approved or have been proven safe in clinical trials (at the time of the study, the Hub contained 4,518 drugs).

Historically, scientists have stumbled upon new uses for a few existing medicines, such as the discovery of aspirin’s cardiovascular benefits.

“We created the repurposing hub to enable researchers to make these kinds of serendipitous discoveries in a more deliberate way,” said study first author Steven Corsello, from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and founder of the Drug Repurposing Hub.

The researchers tested all the compounds in the Drug Repurposing Hub on 578 human cancer cell lines from the Broad’s Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE).

Using a molecular barcoding method known as PRISM, which was developed in the Golub lab, the researchers tagged each cell line with a DNA barcode, allowing them to pool several cell lines together in each dish and more quickly conduct a larger experiment.

The team then exposed each pool of barcoded cells to a single compound from the repurposing library, and measured the survival rate of the cancer cells.

They found nearly 50 non-cancer drugs — including those initially developed to lower cholesterol or reduce inflammation — that killed some cancer cells while leaving others alone.

Some of the compounds killed cancer cells in unexpected ways.

“Most existing cancer drugs work by blocking proteins, but we’re finding that compounds can act through other mechanisms,” said Corsello.

Cancer Cells
The researchers tested all the compounds in the Drug Repurposing Hub on 578 human cancer cells lines from the Broad’s Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. (Representational Image). Pixabay

Some of the four-dozen drugs researchers identified appear to act not by inhibiting a protein but by activating a protein or stabilising a protein-protein interaction.

For example, the team found that nearly a dozen non-oncology drugs killed cancer cells that express a protein called PDE3A by stabilising the interaction between PDE3A and another protein called SLFN12 — a previously unknown mechanism for some of these drugs.

These unexpected drug mechanisms were easier to find using the study’s cell-based approach, which measures cell survival, than through traditional non-cell-based high-throughput screening methods, Corsello said.

Also Read- Mothers Find Gaps in Accessibility of Breastfeeding Resources at Work: Research

Most of the non-oncology drugs that killed cancer cells in the study did so by interacting with a previously unrecognized molecular target.

For example, the anti-inflammatory drug tepoxalin, originally developed for use in people but approved for treating osteoarthritis in dogs, killed cancer cells by hitting an unknown target in cells that overexpress the protein MDR1, which commonly drives resistance to chemotherapy drugs. (IANS)