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Higher gender inequality in India than Pakistan, Bangladesh

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New Delhi: India lags way behind Pakistan and Bangladesh in the 2014 Gender Inequality Index (GII), with a rank of 130 out of 155 countries, according to the latest Human Development Report (HDR) 2015 by the United National Development Programme.

While Bangladesh and Pakistan respectively hold a rank of 111 and 121, among South Asian countries, India is at a better position only compared to Afghanistan, which is at 152.

The GII takes into account the inequalities seen in gender-specific areas such as, women empowerment measured through the number of parliamentary seats occupied by women and women’s education level; reproductive health of women measured by adolescent birth rates and maternal mortality ratio.; and economic contribution measured by the rate of labour market participation.

India has fallen behind its neighbors with respect to almost each of these parameters.

  • Indian women hold merely 12.2 per cent of parliamentary seats, while the percentage is 19.7 in Pakistan and 20 in Bangladesh.

  • For every 100,000 live births, 190 mothers die in India. The country has a high maternal mortality rate compared to both Bangladesh and Pakistan, where there are 170 pregnancy-related deaths per 100,000 births.

  • At 34 per cent women receiving secondary education, Bangladesh is far more developed than India, which is at 27 per cent.

  • Bangladesh has 57 per cent women participating in its labour force, while India has just 27 per cent.

India’s performance, according to the above indices, is even lower than the South Asian average. It is just in the sector of adolescent birth rate that India’s figures are better than Bangladesh and over the South Asian average, though Pakistan marginally out-performs it.

The adolescent birth rate refers to the number of births per 1000 women aged between 15 and 19 years. A lower rate is indicative of a female population who marries and conceives late, thus showing their control over their own choices.

In the last couple of years, improvements in maternal mortality rate and women’s representation in parliaments have slightly pushed up India’s GII values from 0.61 to 0.563, said UNDP officials. Other indicators however remained stagnant during this time.

A global drop was documented by the HDR 2015 in the female labour force participation rate, which refers to the working age female population in paid employment or looking for paid work. “This is mainly owing to the steep reduction for India, from 35 per cent women in 1990 to 27 per cent in 2013, and China from 73 per cent to 64 per cent in the same period,” said UNDP resident representative in India, Yuri Afanasiev.

National coordinator of Self-Employed Women’s Association, Renana Jhabvala stated that women’s workforce participation is missed by government surveys many a time due to the fact that they are virtually invisible.

“For instance, these surveys fail to capture details on large number of women in agriculture since land is in the name of the man. Due to this invisibility in official data, such women are often bereft of benefits such loans or seeds which the land-holding men are eligible for. This creates in India what we call a ‘sticky floor’ situation, where a majority of women cannot rise above a certain level of earnings, skills and benefits. It is the opposite of what the West refers to as ‘glass ceiling’,” said Jhabvala.

In case of Human Development Index (HDI), however, India out-performs both Pakistan and Bangladesh. While India ranks 130 out of 188, Pakistan is at 147 and Bangladesh at 142.

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As Climate Talks Come to a Halt, Africa Suffers From Global Warming

The World Health Organization warns that climate change will exacerbate the impact of some disease and health problems.

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Drought, Climate change, global warming
A farmer stands on cracked earth that three weeks earlier created the bottom of a reservoir on his farm, in Groot Marico, South Africa. VOA

Efforts to boost global action against climate change are stuttering, as several key nations have objected to a key United Nations-backed report on the impacts of rising temperatures at the COP24 talks in Poland.

Many developing nations say they are already suffering from the impact of climate change, especially in south Asia and Africa, where water shortages and intense storms are putting lives and livelihoods in danger.

In Malawi in southern Africa, a bustling fish market stood at Kachulu on the shores of Lake Chilwa just five months ago. Now, hundreds of fishing boats lie marooned across the vast bay as vultures circle over the cracked, sun-baked mud. Water levels here fluctuate annually, but scientists say climate change is making the seasonal dry-out of the lake far more dramatic. Fishermen are being forced to leave and look for work elsewhere, says Sosten Chiotha, of the non-governmental organization ‘LEAD’ – Leadership for Environment and Development.

“Climate change contributes to the current recessions that we are experiencing, because you can see that in 2012 there was a recession where the lake lost about 80 percent of its water. Then it recovered in 2013, but not fully. So since then every year we have been experiencing these recessions,” Chiotha said.

Scientists gathering at the COP24 climate talks say it is developing countries like Malawi that are being hit hardest by the impacts of climate change.

The charity Water Aid has released a report ranking the countries worst-hit by water shortages, with Sudan, Niger and Pakistan making up the top three.

“There are people who are living with the impact of climate change right now. And they’re feeling those impacts not through carbon, but through water. And as we’ve seen over the past few years and will continue to see for many years to come unfortunately, is a huge increase in water stress and absolute water scarcity,” Water Aid’s Jonathan Farr told VOA from the climate talks currently underway in the Polish city of Katowice.

Richer nations have pledged $100 billion a year for poorer nations to deal with the consequences of climate change. Water Aid says they are failing to deliver the money.

Scientists say emissions of carbon dioxide would have to be reduced by 45 percent by 2030 to have any hope of keeping global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius – the target agreed in the Paris climate deal.

 

 

Global Warming, Climate Change, Africa
Climate activists attend the March for Climate in a protest against global warming in Katowice, Poland, Dec. 8, 2018, as the COP24 UN Climate Change Conference takes place in the city. VOA

However, the number of coal-fired power stations – the most polluting for

m of energy generation – is growing. The German organization ‘Urgewald’ calculates that $478 billion had been invested into expansion of the coal industry between January 2016 and September 2018.

Also Read: To Help Poor Countries Adapt To Global Warming, World Bank Doubles Its Funding

Meanwhile the World Health Organization warns that climate change will exacerbate the impact of some disease and health problems, including malaria, malnutrition and heat exposure.

Also Read: To Help Poor Countries Adapt To Global Warming, World Bank Doubles Its Funding

There is little optimism at the talks that much concrete progress will be made, as several countries including the United States, Russia and Saudi Arabia have already voiced objections to a key scientific report from the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (VOA)