Never miss a story

Get subscribed to our newsletter


×
The four Veda books. Pinterest

BY SHWETA PORWAL

The Word Veda means wisdom, knowledge, or vision, and it serves to manifest the language of the gods in human speech. Vedas are a large body of knowledge texts including elements such as poems, prayers, and formulas originating in the ancient Indian Subcontinent.


Vedas are considered the earliest literary record of Indian civilization and is the most sacred books of India having a composition of Hymns and other religious text composed between 1500 and 1000 BCE. Vedas are also known and called Sruti (What is heard) literature, distinguishing them from other religious texts, called Smrti (What is remembered).

Follow NewsGram on Twitter to stay updated about the World news.

The canonical division of Vedas includes four Vedas Rig-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Yajur-Veda and the Atharva Veda.

Rig-Veda: “Knowledge of the Hymns of praise”

Sama-Veda: “Knowledge of the melodies”

Yajur-Veda: “Knowledge of the sacrificial formulas”

Atharva-Veda: “Knowledge of the magical formulas”

Let’s dive deep into the topic to know more about the four Vedas.


The canonical division of Vedas includes four Vedas. Pinterest

THE RIG-VEDA

Rig-Veda- The book of Mantras, is the oldest Indic text and is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit Hymns, 10,600 verses collected into 10 books of Hymns and mantras used by the priests.

The Rig-Veda focuses on pleasing the principal gods Indra (War, wind, and rain), Agni (the sacrificial fire), the sun, and Varuna (the cosmic order). The books were composed by poets from different priestly groups over a period of several centuries making it the oldest.

THE SAMA-VEDA

Sama-Veda- The book of songs, is purely a collection melody consisting of 1549 stanzas. The Sama-Veda Samhita has two major parts, the first includes four melody collections (Gana), and the other part includes three verse books (Arcika). The text of Sama-Veda is completely drawn from the Rig-Veda and has no different lessons of its own which makes it a reduced version of the Rig-Veda.

THE YAJUR-VEDA


The Yajur-Veda. Pinterest

Yajur-Veda- The book of Rituals, consists of prose mantras. It is a complication of ritual offering formulas that were said by a priest while an individual the ritual actions. The yajur-Veda includes 1875 verses that are built on the foundation of verses in Rig-Veda. The text of Yajur-Veda has two major groups the Black (Krishna) and the other one is the White (Shukla).

The Yajur-Veda has always been the primary source of information about sacrifices during the Vedic times and is also similar to ancient Egypt’s Book of the Dead.

ALSO READ: 5 Life Lessons One Can Learn From Bhagavad Gita

THE ATHARVA-VEDA

Atharva-Veda- The book of Spells, is the last of Vedas and is completely different from the other three Vedas. The book includes the text belonging to the artharvan and Angirasa poets consisting of about 760 hymns, and 160 hymns commons with the Rig-Veda.

The last Veda- Atharva-Veda has the primary source of information about Vedic culture, the customs, and beliefs, the aspiration and frustrations of Vedic life. The text of the Atharva-Veda includes hymns dealing with marriage and cremation.


Popular

Unsplash

Feminism itself is nothing but a simple movement that pursues equal rights for women (including transwomen) and against misogyny both external and internal.

"In India, to be born as a man is a crime, to question a woman is an atrocious crime, and this all because of those women who keep suppressing men in the name of feminism."

Feminism, a worldwide movement that started to establish, define and defend equal rights for women in all sections- economically, politically, and socially. India, being a patriarchal society gives a gender advantage to the men in the society thus, Indian feminists sought to fight against the culture-specific issue for women in India. Feminism itself is nothing but a simple movement that pursues equal rights for women (including transwomen) and against misogyny both external and internal. It states nowhere that women should get more wages than men, that women deserve more respect than men, that's pseudo-feminism.

Keep Reading Show less
wikimedia commons

Yakshi statue by Kanayi Kunjiraman at Malampuzha garden, Kerala

Kerala is a land of many good things. It has an abundance of nature, culture, art, and food. It is also a place of legend and myth, and is known for its popular folklore, the legend of Yakshi. This is not a popular tale outside the state, but it is common knowledge for travellers, especially those who fare through forests at night.

The legend of the yakshi is believed to be India's equivalent of the Romanian Dracula, except of course, the Yakshi is a female. Many Malayalis believe that the Yakshi wears a white saree and had long hair. She has a particular fragrance, which is believed to be the fragrance of the Indian devil-tree flowers. She seduces travellers with her beauty, and kills them brutally.

Keep Reading Show less
Pinterest

Ancient India not only made mentions of homosexuality but accepted it as well.


The LGBTQ+ acronym stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and others. In India LGBTQ+ community also include a specific social group, part religious cult, and part caste: the Hijras. They are culturally defined either as "neither men nor women" or as men who become women by adopting women's dress and behavior. Section 377 of the India Penal code that criminalized all sexual acts "against the order of nature" i.e. engaging in oral sex or anal sex along with other homosexual activities were against the law, ripping homosexual people off of their basic human rights. Thus, the Indian Supreme Court ruled a portion of Section 377 unconstitutional on 6th September 2018.

Keep reading... Show less