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The four Veda books. Pinterest


The Word Veda means wisdom, knowledge, or vision, and it serves to manifest the language of the gods in human speech. Vedas are a large body of knowledge texts including elements such as poems, prayers, and formulas originating in the ancient Indian Subcontinent.

Vedas are considered the earliest literary record of Indian civilization and is the most sacred books of India having a composition of Hymns and other religious text composed between 1500 and 1000 BCE. Vedas are also known and called Sruti (What is heard) literature, distinguishing them from other religious texts, called Smrti (What is remembered).

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The canonical division of Vedas includes four Vedas Rig-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Yajur-Veda and the Atharva Veda.

Rig-Veda: “Knowledge of the Hymns of praise”

Sama-Veda: “Knowledge of the melodies”

Yajur-Veda: “Knowledge of the sacrificial formulas”

Atharva-Veda: “Knowledge of the magical formulas”

Let’s dive deep into the topic to know more about the four Vedas.

The canonical division of Vedas includes four Vedas. Pinterest


Rig-Veda- The book of Mantras, is the oldest Indic text and is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit Hymns, 10,600 verses collected into 10 books of Hymns and mantras used by the priests.

The Rig-Veda focuses on pleasing the principal gods Indra (War, wind, and rain), Agni (the sacrificial fire), the sun, and Varuna (the cosmic order). The books were composed by poets from different priestly groups over a period of several centuries making it the oldest.


Sama-Veda- The book of songs, is purely a collection melody consisting of 1549 stanzas. The Sama-Veda Samhita has two major parts, the first includes four melody collections (Gana), and the other part includes three verse books (Arcika). The text of Sama-Veda is completely drawn from the Rig-Veda and has no different lessons of its own which makes it a reduced version of the Rig-Veda.


The Yajur-Veda. Pinterest

Yajur-Veda- The book of Rituals, consists of prose mantras. It is a complication of ritual offering formulas that were said by a priest while an individual the ritual actions. The yajur-Veda includes 1875 verses that are built on the foundation of verses in Rig-Veda. The text of Yajur-Veda has two major groups the Black (Krishna) and the other one is the White (Shukla).

The Yajur-Veda has always been the primary source of information about sacrifices during the Vedic times and is also similar to ancient Egypt’s Book of the Dead.

ALSO READ: 5 Life Lessons One Can Learn From Bhagavad Gita


Atharva-Veda- The book of Spells, is the last of Vedas and is completely different from the other three Vedas. The book includes the text belonging to the artharvan and Angirasa poets consisting of about 760 hymns, and 160 hymns commons with the Rig-Veda.

The last Veda- Atharva-Veda has the primary source of information about Vedic culture, the customs, and beliefs, the aspiration and frustrations of Vedic life. The text of the Atharva-Veda includes hymns dealing with marriage and cremation.


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Elon Musk has renewed his promise to "extend life to Mars".

Following a huge growth in his personal fortune, Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk has renewed his promise to "extend life to Mars". According to The Star, Musk's wealth has swelled to an astonishing $230 billion. Or a whopping 861 billion Dodgecoin, a cryptocurrency backed by the entrepreneur after he was reported to have invested millions.

Musk is now richer than Bill Gates and Warren Buffett combined, both individuals who had previously held the rich list title. "Elon Musk (with a net worth equal to 861 billion #Dogecoin) is now richer than Bill Gates and Warren Buffett COMBINED!" popular crypto YouTuber Matt Wallace's tweeted.

To which Musk said: "Hopefully enough to extend life to Mars". "Have no doubt you will make it happen," Wallace responded. CEO investments, the creators of Dogecoin, also responded backing Musk's plans every step of the way. The SpaceX Mars programme was initiated by Musk to colonize Mars after he first conceptualized the project back in 2001. SpaceX's aspirational goal has been to land the first humans on Mars by 2024, but in October 2020 Musk named 2024 as the goal for an uncrewed mission. (IANS/ MBI)

Keywords: investments, combined, SpaceX, billion, Elon musk, tesla

Photo by Damir Spanic on Unsplash

A perfume is an essential part of dressing up.

By N. Lothungbeni Humtsoe

A perfume is an essential part of dressing up. Studies confirm that we feel more confident about ourselves if the final touches of our routine is a spritz of lingering perfume. However, how often do you feel that your perfume doesn't last long enough? How often do you feel that the fragrance disappears in a few hours? This is quite a common problem. Let's learn a few hacks to keep you smelling gorgeous all day.

Wearing your perfume right after the shower
Our skin tends to hold onto some moisture right after a shower. This moisture helps to lock the fragments that extend your perfume's longevity.

gray steel shower Our skin tends to hold onto some moisture right after a shower. | Photo by Chandler Cruttenden on Unsplash

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I'm nostalgic about Delhi. There's no ideal place to live in, where you are that is your home - Mukundan

By Vishnu Makhijani

Back in the 1960s, the national capital was a "quiet and safe place" where women were not harmed and you could sleep on your terrace "without locking the main house door". Then, "a nouveau riche class prospered" and outwardly, New Delhi today "is a beautiful city" but "beneath lies hunger, filth and diseases".Still, Malayalam author M. Mukundan is nostalgic about a city where he lived for 40 long years before moving back to his hometown of Mahe and this prompted him to write "Delhi - A Soliloquy", translated by Fathima E.V. and Nandakumar K (Westland/Eka) that has been shortlisted for the Rs 25 lakh JCB Prize for Literature, India's richest literary award. "When I was in Delhi, I felt nostalgic about Mahe. Now it is the other way round - I'm nostalgic about Delhi. There's no ideal place to live in, where you are that is your home," Mukundan, four of whose works have been adapted for the big screen, told IANS in an interview.

"In the early 60s when I arrived in Delhi, it was a quiet and safe place. There were villages within the city. After seeing a late night movie at the Race Course theatre, women and children would walk down to Lodhi Colony past midnight. No woman was harmed. "In summer, we used to sleep on the charpoys spread out on the terraces of our houses without locking the main house door down below. It was a city anybody will dream of living. And then Delhi changed all of a sudden - a brutal, grotesque change. "Factories and commercial establishments came up, attracting unemployed poor people from other states. Building mafias destroyed villages and fields and built ugly high-rise buildings. Poor people were pushed away to filthy slums where they led a wretched life of deprivation. Throwing away all values, a nouveau riche class prospered. Outwardly, Delhi is a beautiful city. But beneath lies hunger, filth and diseases," Mukundan elaborated.

Mukundan A Soliloquy" is the story of the changes and growth of the city with Sahadevan's life as the backdrop. Wikimedia Commons

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