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The art of perfume making is a delicate one. It requires skill to create a scent that matches both the occasion, and sits well with the wearer's own body odor. Over the years, the art that we know of now, began its journey as a scientific practice used to embalm the dead.
History of Perfume
The Egyptians are credited for many pioneering inventions among which perfume is one which has lived on. The dead rich of the pyramids must have reeked terribly at some point before the Egyptians decided to enamor the gods with a pleasing scent. They began their pursuit of preservation by experimenting with the flowers and oils at hand. Squeezing flowers till drops of essence mixed with oil, raising an aroma, mixing it in, and massaging it in the skin. Soon, the allure of scents spread among the aristocrats, and perfume became something everyone used.
scented oils were applied on the body in certain formulations Image source: UnsplashUnsplash
The ancients used incense in their religious worship, and anything offered to the gods was always sweet-smelling. The word perfume was adopted for scents from the context of sweet smoke, and means "out of the smoke" from the Latin per fumum. Today, perfume is packaged in candles, incense sticks, and bottles, each emitting smoke, fumes, or mist, of which scent remains.
During the time of plague and disease in the Middle Ages, Europe was at the helm of inventions. At the time, it was believed that perfumes and scents kept away the disease. The story is told of four thieves who managed to stay healthy despite stealing from people infected with plague. It was later discovered that they used a concoction of vinegar and herbs to mask their scent, and it had kept them from catching the disease. The Greeks took on the idea and developed perfumes, which were originally scented oils, massaged on the body, believed to have medicinal and sensual properties. Animal scents were also used for fragrances.
The Greeks took on the idea and developed perfumes, which were originally scented oils, massaged on the body, believed to have medicinal and sensual properties Image source: UnsplashUnsplash
The Romans, who were a very sensuous culture, indulged in fragrant food and clothes. They included perfumed oils in baths. The Roman public baths are still known for their inclusive experience of the pleasures of bath scents and massages. Soon, it began to denote luxury, and the quality of perfume defined class. By the time this practice reached the rest of Europe, scented oils were applied on the body in certain formulations. It was known as the 'fragrance pyramid', a system that devised the suitability of oils to body parts. Travelers, voyagers, and scientists, took this idea to other countries, and the Arab perfume began to gain fame for its desert scent.
At the time of the Crusades, when perfumery had reached some sort of zenith in its fame, the Italians perfected the art of scent. They found a way to use coolants on distilling tubes and were able to attain an alcoholic scent which they called aqua vita, aqua mirabilis, or the water of life. This clear liquid was used to treat wounds, as tincture, and perfume. During the epidemics in Europe, masks were made that held herbs and scents underneath, to prevent the doctors and nurses from getting ill. Part of the treatment involved using this new liquid.
Flower petals are used to extract essence after distillation Image source: UnsplashUnsplash
Finally, in 1370 Hungary, the queen created a blend of the miraculous liquid with lavender and rosemary, the first modern perfume. It began to be known as the 'Elixir of Youth'. When colonial trade began, spices became the source of aromas, and were distilled into essential oils and flavors. The monarchs of the time took heavily to these new practices, and tanneries and places where foul smells were prominent, began to use these scents under royal issue. It is believed that after the French princess Catherine de Medici married King Henri II, she took an interest in perfumery which shifted its base to France. The rulers who followed, especially King Louis XIV, who never bathed, endorsed perfumes extensively to mask his body odor. The entire palace was scented at various points to suit different occasions. His court earned the name 'The Perfumed Court', and many patrons were attracted to it.
Chanel is a leading perfume brand based in Paris Image source: Unsplash
With the coming of the Industrial Revolution, perfumery began to have gender norms. Heavy scents were done away with, and delicate flowery scents were developed. The perfume became a product that would be monetized and branded. Perfumers developed a range of fragrances to suit the preferences perfume for men and perfume for women of their customers and in the late 50s and 60s, it was revolutionized as a cosmetic product by brands like Chanel Perfume.
Perfume for women, who used to depend on their men for perfumes as presents, began to buy their own. Bath oils became popular, and scents were added to other feminine products.
Today, the preference for fragrances is headed towards eastern aromas, which are less flowery and more earthy. Mists, sprays, and oils are being brought out at record speed with improved preparations to meet a wide range of skin condition needs, fragrance wants, and even to suit body odors.
Keywords: Perfume, perfumery, Chanel Perfume, fragrances, perfume for women, History of Perfume.
Amitabh Bachchan is adored by the public for his unforgettable on-screen performances as well as his magnetic demeanour. Not only do fans love Amitabh Bachchan's outstanding performance, but the actor's heartwarming words are also highly regarded. A much moved Amitabh Bachchan, during his speech to the crowd of over 80,000 people at the Reliance Industries' annual event, said that the legacy left by Dhirubhai has had a positive impact on millions of people's lives worldwide.
When Bollywood superstar Amitabh Bachchan became bankrupt in the late 1990s, Dhirubhai Ambani stepped forward to give him financial assistance. In his speech, Bachchan remembered that Dhirubhai had sent Anil Ambani to offer him financial assistance during the crisis, which he had respectfully declined. Lenders began knocking on his door, losses mounted, and his bank account dwindled to nothing. He said, "Dhirubhai's money might have gotten me out of the problem quickly. However, I respectfully declined his offer and gradually began to find work again, which let me pay off my debt."
Amitabh Bachchan is adored by the public for his unforgettable on-screen performances as well as his magnetic demeanour. | Flickr
Later, after Bachchan had recovered from the bankruptcy, one day he was invited to an event at Dhirubhai's residence; Bachchan added, "Dhirubhai was standing and having a chat with his industrialist friends when he saw me there, he called me, firstly I felt shy even to present myself in front of such big industrialists but then, I went there, and Dhirubhai declared in front of all of them that 'This young man had fallen but managed to get back up on his own, I have a lot of respect for him because of that.' Those words of his were worth much more to me than any amount of money that he could have offered me."
It was the "Reliance Family Day" event and was attended by members of the Ambani family from all generations. The event commemorated the company's 40-year journey since its inception. It also celebrated the 85th birthday of the late Dhirubhai Ambani, RILs (Reliance Industries Limited) founder.
Keywords: Bollywood, Reliance, Amitabh Bachchan, Dhirubhai Ambani, event
In comparison to adults, children are prone to getting traumatized by troubling events easily, and this makes it important for parents to help their children when the times are tough. It could be a brutal accident, an unprecedented pandemic, a violent crime, or other disasters but with the right parental support, children have a higher chance of coming out stronger from an awful situation.
Anuja Kapur, Psychologist shares few tips wherein you can assist your child when tough times comes calling:
Every child responds differently to disturbing events: What children feel about a current disaster in their life and how they react to it can come and go in waves. Children can act moody and withdrawn at times, struck with sorrow and fear at other times. There's no absolute "right" or "wrong" way to feel after a traumatic event so make sure not to dictate what your child or how your child should feel and react to the event.
Children can act moody and withdrawn at times, struck with sorrow and fear at other times. | Photo by Kat J on Unsplash
Encourage your child to be transparent: Just make sure you let your child know that whatever feelings they're experiencing is normal. The unpleasantness will pass if your child opens up about it and that the phase is temporary. While many teens may be reluctant to talk about their feelings with a parent, encourage them to confide in another trusted adult such as a family friend, relative, or a counselor and teacher. It's important to talkeeven if it's not with you.
Just make sure you let your child know that whatever feelings they're experiencing is normal. | Photo by Sebastián León Prado on Unsplash
Deter your child from reliving the disturbing event: Dwelling over, watching the footage, or imagining the event can be overwhelmingly stressful for children and this stress can even block their nervous system. However, to negate such things from happening encourage activities that keep your child's mind occupied so they're not obsessive about the event. You could encourage your children to read, play games together, or simply watch an uplifting movie.
Dwelling over, watching the footage, or imagining the event can be overwhelmingly stressful for children and this stress can even block their nervous system. | Photo by Юлія Дубина on Unsplash
Cocoon your child with warmth: In order to reassure your child that they are safe with you and feel secure, that the worst is over your physical affection is important in making them feel safe again. Teens may try to be tough through it and avoid being held, but they still need the proximity.
In order to reassure your child that they are safe with you and feel secure, that the worst is over your physical affection is important in making them feel safe again. | Photo by adrianna geo on Unsplash
Maintain routines. Establishing a predictable structure and schedule for your child's life can help to make the world seem more stable again. Try to maintain regular times for meals, homework, and family activities. Make sure your child accommodates time and space for rest, play, and fun. Keeping up with a schedule can help countercheck the obnoxious feeling of stress and worry in children about the future being dark, hopeless, and unpredictable.
Try to maintain regular times for meals, homework, and family activities. | Photo by Paico Oficial on Unsplash
Acknowledge and validate your child's concerns. The disastrous events in life may give place to unrelated fright and concerns in your child. However, understanding and accepting your child's present state is a comfort for the child. If at any point the child blames himself for the event make sure to make it clear and crisp the event was not their fault, you love them, and it's okay for them to feel upset, angry, or scared but not guilty.
Understanding and accepting your child's present state is a comfort for the child Photo by Jeremiah Lawrence on Unsplash
Irrespective of the age of your child, it is vital for parents to offer that extra support and assistance following an unsettling event. The traumatic event may bring up unrelated fears and issues in your child. However, by accepting their thoughts and replacing their fear with your love and direction, the ominous feelings will start to fade away. Eventually, the child will be able to return to a normal and healthy life. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Kids, Help, stress, cope, routine, warmth, understanding, encourage, psychology, children
The European Commission, the executive arm of the European Union (EU), has announced plans for smartphone and other electronics manufacturers to fit a common USB-C charging port on their devices in an effort to reduce waste. In addition to phones, the rules will apply to other devices like tablets, headphones, portable speakers, videogame consoles, and cameras, reports The Verge. The decision will have a huge impact on Apple, as the company still uses its own Lightning connector to charge iPhones. The proposals only cover devices using wired, not wireless and a USB-C port is only mandatory for devices that charge using a cable.
"Chargers power all our most essential electronic devices | Photo by Solen Feyissa on Unsplash
"Chargers power all our most essential electronic devices. With more and more devices, more and more chargers are sold that are not interchangeable or not necessary. We are putting an end to that," the report quoted EU commissioner Thierry Breton as saying.
The Commission also wants to unbundle the sale of chargers from the sale of electronic devices, which it says will improve the consumers' convenience. "With our proposal, European consumers will be able to use a single charger for all their portable electronics - an important step to increase convenience and reduce waste." In addition, the Commission will require manufacturers to provide relevant information about charging performance. (IANS/MBI)
Keywords: Electronic Devices, Chargers, Cable, smartphone, Adapters, Charging Cord