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Continuous Testing is a genre of software testing where testing plays a key role – testing is conducted from early phases, often and everywhere. Automation is key here. The strategy here is to evaluate quality at every step of Continuous Delivery. Continuous Testing is based on the concept of testing early and testing often.
The software offers a competitive advantage in any market. There need no longer be any trade-off between speed and quality. The key catalysts that enable quality even at speed are – Continuous Integration, Continuous Testing and Continuous Delivery. Among these, the most challenging is Continuous Testing, involving individuals, teams, tools and services. Building and integrating the code changes here are important. If the automatic delivery process is incapable of identifying the impact of changes on end-user experience and business risks, Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery become a liability.
Keeping with today’s scenarios, Agile modules for testing and development is seeing increasing demand. This is why most teams are trying to improve Agile management. With Agile development and testing, speed is the only thing you need to focus on. Speed is critical in the user-centric applications to quickly raise the ability to innovate. With higher agility, the development process needs to be faster and more powerful.
The term agile (or Agile) was popularized by the Manifesto for Agile Software Development. The principles and values of Agile were developed from several software development frameworks, like Kanban and Scrum. The Manifesto for Agile Software Development has 12 principles:
- Keeping customers satisfied through the early and continuous delivery of software products
- Welcoming the changes in requirements, even late in the development phases
- Close communication between the developers and the management
- Delivering working software very frequently, almost every few weeks
- Making face-to-face communication
- Projects should be built around trustworthy and motivated individuals
- Ensuring sustainable development at a constant pace
- Measuring progress through working software
- Focusing on good design and technical excellence
- Keeping everything as simple as possible
- Constant discussion to increase productivity and making the adjustments
- Using the best architecture and designs from the teams who can self-organize
How continuous testing is different from test automation?
Test automation is a process where certain software or tools are used to automate the tasks. These are a set of repetitive or similar tasks that can be done by a machine with very few mistakes. It is possible to integrate automation in the process without the need for continuous testing. The software releases might take anywhere between months to years. Also, regular feedback will be shared after testing each release. Automated testing protocols aren’t anything new.
Continuous testing methodology is different in the sense that it focuses on testing the software continuously, starting from the early stages, to achieve continuous improvement and quality. The continuous testing process helps in finding the risk, addressing them and improve the quality of the product. Though continuous testing can be implemented in theory without automation, it is greatly benefited by integrating automation. The software releases can be made weekly or even hourly. There needs to be instant feedback at each stage. The concept is pretty new.
How automation testing of Agile projects fare against Waterfall projects?
To maintain agility, automation is a critical component and is prioritised by the entire team. There are established disciplines and practices for that. Functional and integration test execution, continuous integration and automated deployments are some of the examples of applying automation beyond the traditional automated tests. Waterfall projects do not consider automation as a priority due to the hands-off mindset and phased investment. There might be some automation in the builds and a phase of waterfall project might be dedicated to functional test automation.
What falls under the responsibilities of an Agile Team?
Anyone who needs to do anything repetitively in a short span of time will have the need to automate the process. This can be done with a well-known tool like TestComplete or open-source options and even homegrown scripts or utilities. Testers have the responsibility of developing functional test automation as the activity runs parallel to the development of the actual feature.
Maintaining and Reviewing the Automated tests in Agile Environments
The tests are often developed by teams consisting of testers and developers or testers and product owners. Owing to this, there will be a built-in review process of test scope and validation level. Collaborative planning and collaborative acceptance with the owner of the product offer a lot of shared knowledge and review. Thus, robust and resilient automated tests can be created which offer the backbone of regression testing. Failures in tests from regression testing fire a test review.
In ideal cases, all the tests are maintained by the team – be it functional, unit or other. Specialized GUI tools might be used by the testers that require them to maintain the tests over time. The tools need to be carefully chosen to be accessible to all team members. The information should be readily available and the test inventory needs to be continuously culled to prevent test bloating.
Automation ensures a test-driven environment in Agile
The Test Driven Development is a coding practice undertaken by a developer and not the Agile testers. The developers write a failing unit test and add the associated code to satisfy the test and then run the tests to success. The higher-level functional and acceptance tests use the same concept, be they automated or done manually. Detailed requirements are expressed in the form of acceptance tests and they can be captured in advance in a test automation environment.
Why should you use automation for continuous testing in Agile?
If you need to consider the factors that automation can boost in Agile development, these are the following:
- Early defects and less cost – Continuous testing has a vital role to play in the agile development methodology. Test automation in continuous Agile delivery helps in the determination of software defects and basic authorization. If the defects are fixed early on, there would be minor costs to the enterprise. An adequate testing process in the initial stage of development allows recovery to be fast in the case of unexpected defects in the product.
- Automation is easy and it makes things easier – A continuous delivery model needs a continuous testing process. This can be done only through test automation. An end-to-end test automation strategy would help empower the organizations to test early, quickly and automate. It can be done easily at every phase of product development. It helps to coordinate QA efforts to balance the speed of DevOps and assist developers in delivering unique software features in weeks.
- Reducing the testing efforts – No matter the methodology that is used for testing, automation can reduce the testing efforts remarkably. With a good focus on agility and continuous development and delivery, automation tools can serve the testing team and the overall product development.
- Increase in the speed and performance of the software – An increase in speed and performance becomes easy with automation. The test cycles move faster and allow developers to gain feedback and insights much faster. Though it can become enticing to automate every testing mode, manual testing needs to be used in regression and exploratory testing at the UI level.
- Gaining efficiency – There needs to be a lot of expertise in creating test environments and configuring the automation framework. The greatest hardships are probably gaining the test automation coverage including the time and cost associated with setting up the effective automation framework. The comprehensive test management platform simplifies the achievement of the test automation project. Finding the perfectly skilled automation expert can be a challenge and most organizations have to face this. There needs to be a lot of coordination between developers, product managers and testers for continuous delivery and continuous Agile testing.
- Robust Planning and Execution – Organizations can assist the development teams to make faster developments without striving the in-house QA resources. Access to the right expertise who can understand the software architecture can plan and execute successful automation scripts. By automating significant workflows, companies can reduce the cost and time in testing.
Continuous testing and the automation process begins at around the same time as the development. The testing process should also begin the same time as the development, i.e. Day One. An automated testing ROI is a prerequisite for a truly agile team. The tests will offer faster feedback and reduce work and long feedback cycles.
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Finally, it is important to know that the auto-generation of the tests would not cover the needs of the teams. Someone would still need to write broader and global tests, which are more general. These would include system testing, the non-functional requirements and integration testing. The projects focused on delivering the user-facing software where the majority of requirements are functional, automation in continuous testing will ensure your team the major jump on the quality confirmation. Continuous Testing acts as the centerpiece of the Agile downstream process.
"In India, to be born as a man is a crime, to question a woman is an atrocious crime, and this all because of those women who keep suppressing men in the name of feminism."
Feminism, a worldwide movement that started to establish, define and defend equal rights for women in all sections- economically, politically, and socially. India, being a patriarchal society gives a gender advantage to the men in the society thus, Indian feminists sought to fight against the culture-specific issue for women in India. Feminism itself is nothing but a simple movement that pursues equal rights for women (including transwomen) and against misogyny both external and internal. It states nowhere that women should get more wages than men, that women deserve more respect than men, that's pseudo-feminism.
Pseudo feminists state that women deserve more respect and rights, any other gender deserves no respect. They feel that women should be the ones ruling the world and at higher positions. When feminism takes a turn for extremities it becomes pseudo-feminism and people who label themselves as feminists will bash anyone who speaks against even the wrongdoings of a woman. They'll bash women who're wife and sisters for not speaking up and support any women criticizing political leaders even if it's completely irrational. This is where hypocrisy and pseudo-feminism merge with each other.
They take advantage of the rights given to women to protect themselves to threaten other genders. The rights given to women are supposed to make them feel reassured that they can reach out to the judiciary if their rights are being hampered not to threaten to make the victim sound like the culprit.
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Indian Feminist Movement has made significant progress however, even in the modern world women are still unsafe and are discriminated against when it comes to getting a job, land ownership, and access to education. While filling the official papers it is still asked "Wife of /Daughter of:….."
People in India still continue the practice of sex-selective abortion, abandoning the girl child, not letting girl child study instead they should learn household chores, they are seen as a burden to the family. Such injustices make feminism such an important movement, gender equality is worth fighting for to create a safe environment for women. Feminists over the years have been criticized for focusing on the rights of privileged women and not giving equal representation to poorer and lower caste women, which has led to separate caste-specific feminist organizations and movements.
Some notable milestones in the Feminist Movement
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy campaigned against Sati Pratha (practice in which a widow sacrificed herself by sitting atop her deceased husband's funeral pyre) and child marriage
- Savitribai Phule started the first school for girls at Bhidewada in Pune city in 1848.
- In 1972, SEWA, the biggest trade union for women was set up by Ela Bhatt for women working in the informal sector.
- The Chipko Movement was launched and led by women in 1973.
- #MeToo movement against sexual harassment and abuse was started in 2006 and revived in the year 2015.
People in India still continue the practice of sex-selective abortion, abandoning the girl child, not letting girl child study instead they should learn household chores, they are seen as a burden to the family.Unsplash
Feminism is often misunderstood as pseudo-feminism and hence, becomes the target for public hatred and is accused of wronging other genders under the façade of feminism. It is misunderstood by Indians as female domination instead of gender equality. Indian society and Indian feminists believe that only men are perpetrators of a heinous crime like rape and they refuse to even recognize the men who say they were raped and it's the toxic masculinity in the society that believes how can a woman rape a man? Reality is different from what we believe, women can be the perpetrator too, women threaten to file a case of domestic violence, or sexual assault against innocent people just to fulfill their ego.
Thankfully feminism and pseudo feminism are two separate concepts and feminism is just about equality and not judgment. Indian society and feminists actually need to understand the difference between the two and stop tarnishing the Feminist Movement as a whole.
Keywords: Feminism, World, India, Pseudo-Feminism, Gender
Kerala is a land of many good things. It has an abundance of nature, culture, art, and food. It is also a place of legend and myth, and is known for its popular folklore, the legend of Yakshi. This is not a popular tale outside the state, but it is common knowledge for travellers, especially those who fare through forests at night.
The legend of the yakshi is believed to be India's equivalent of the Romanian Dracula, except of course, the Yakshi is a female. Many Malayalis believe that the Yakshi wears a white saree and had long hair. She has a particular fragrance, which is believed to be the fragrance of the Indian devil-tree flowers. She seduces travellers with her beauty, and kills them brutally.
Yakshi idol in Veroor, Sri Dharamashastha temple Image source: wikimedia commons
The Yakshi is believed to live in a palm tree which can appear like a palace. Victims are taken here before they are killed. Travellers on highways are often advised not to stop near heavily forested areas, or speak to anyone who closely resembles a Yakshi. Some believe she can change form, while other hold to the belief that she doesn't. after securing her victim, the only trace left behind is body parts like hair, nails, and teeth.
They say, like other ghosts, a Yakshi's feet will not touch the ground. This is something to look out for. Mysterious deaths have been reported across the rural areas in Kerala, and all these have been attributed to the legend.
Keywords: Legends, Yakshi, Urban legend, Ghost, Kerala, Myth, Vampire
The LGBTQ+ acronym stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and others. In India LGBTQ+ community also include a specific social group, part religious cult, and part caste: the Hijras. They are culturally defined either as "neither men nor women" or as men who become women by adopting women's dress and behavior. Section 377 of the India Penal code that criminalized all sexual acts "against the order of nature" i.e. engaging in oral sex or anal sex along with other homosexual activities were against the law, ripping homosexual people off of their basic human rights. Thus, the Indian Supreme Court ruled a portion of Section 377 unconstitutional on 6th September 2018.
But the question is, "was India always against homosexuality"? Has the concept of homosexuality being unnatural existed forever? No, in Indian history and Hinduism homosexuality has never been an offense, in fact in several instances it has been depicted how people embraced their identity, be it sexual identity or gender identity. Section 377 was brought to India by the British in 1862, while India was colonized. Even after the Independence, it was only in 2018 that the Supreme Court ruled it as irrational and illogical.
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Homosexuality in Ancient India
When Supreme Court decriminalized homosexuality in India, there was an uproar about it being a western ideology and liberalism. But in reality, homosexuality has existed since the time of the Vedas. The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association (GALVA) researched and discovered that it was around 3102 B.C. (during the Vedic Age) that homosexuality or non-normative sexual identity was recognized as "Tritiya Prakriti", or the third nature. Ancient India not only made mentions of homosexuality but accepted it as well.
Hinduism is the most vastly followed religion in India. Hinduism does not explicitly mention homosexuality however it does contain a homosexual theme and characters in its text. There have been various instances in our scriptures and texts that have introduced us to LGBT+ characters such as the androgynous form of Shiva and Parvati Ardhanariswara meaning "the half-female lord". One of the most popular and ancient texts on sexuality, eroticism, and emotional fulfillment of life, "Kamasutra" has a complete chapter dedicated to homosexuality and homosexual sex. Numerous Hindu sculptures and temples have statues depicting homosexual activities.
Numerous Hindu sculptures and temples have statues depicting homosexual activities. Facebook
Our Mughals were Queer
Mughals are often seen under the light of cruelty, rigid ethics, nobility, and polygamy. Simultaneously, Mughals are also the ones credited for the emergence of Sufism, abolished jizya tax, love beyond religion, classes, and gender.
In the Baburnama written in memoirs of our very first Mughal ruler Muhammad Babur, several instances documented Babur's infatuation and affection towards a teenage boy named Baburi. We also have multiple Persian couplets as evidence of Babur's affection for Baburi. Mughals engaged in homosexuality and pederasty, and they believed that later was a form of "pure love".
But as time passed homosexuality was suppressed more and more though people practiced it in secret if revealed they were punished. According to the Fatwa-e-Alamgiri Sharia-based text of the Mughal Empire, there is a common set of punishments for homosexuality, which could include 50 lashes for a slave, 100 for a free infidel, or death by stoning for a Muslim.
British Raj and Independence of India
In 1862, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code that criminalized homosexual sex came into force. Even after Independence in 1947, the section remained a part of the Indian Constitution. There were protests all over the country to give people of the LGBT+ community basic human rights but it was not until 2018 that The Supreme Court of India ruled the portion of Section 377 has unconstitutional and struck it off. One judge said the landmark decision would "pave the way for a better future.". With Section 377 gone are LGBT+ people allowed to fall in love freely? No, people are still afraid to love because of the stigma in our society when it comes to homosexuality; they are seen as lesser humans.
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Although the Supreme Court has decriminalized homosexual activities, same-sex marriage remains illegal in the country. Homophobia is still prevalent in India, and homosexual children would rather commit suicide than come out to society with their true identity, that's how harsh of a world we live in. Lacking support from family, society, or police, many gay rape victims do not report the crimes. In 1977, writer and Indian mathematician Shakuntla Devi published "The World of Homosexuals". It was the first study in the Indian context; the book contains interviews with homosexual men set in the years of Emergency. She wrote, "rather than pretending that homosexuals don't exist it is time we face the facts squarely in the eye and find room for homosexual people." We've had small victories in our fight against homophobia and getting LGBT+ community the rights they deserve as humans, but we still have a long and exhausting fight ahead of us.