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BY PETER YORDANOV
If you have got an offer from a mining company to buy mineral rights associated with your property then it is essential to first know, if you own them in the first place. Mineral rights are separately sold from owning land. So, what are mineral rights, and how to buy mineral rights if you don’t have them? Ensure if the earlier owner leased or sold them. Here, you will understand what are the chances and risks involved in the US market of mineral rights.
What are mineral rights?
Owning Mineral rights means bestowing the ownership of the extraction, exploring, and developing of minerals below your property surface. The owner can excavate rock minerals like copper, gold, gas, coal, or oil.
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Types of mineral rights
Mineral rights apply to oil, geothermal, gas, and hard rock minerals. They apply to leasable, locatable, salable, new mineral discoveries, and meteorite minerals. If you know the types of mineral rights, you will be able to buy the best suitable one for you.
The 4 types are:
Mineral rights – These rights offer ownership of the minerals below the ground. Subsurface rights can get shut-in payments, royalty, and lease. These rights are applicable in the gas and oil industry. Shut-in payments are paid royalties by the gas and oil company to sustain a lease on present unproductive assets of minerals.
Surface Rights – When ownership rights are given to surface minerals only, they are called surface rights. Subsurface minerals are excluded from these rights.
Royalty Rights – Here the owner is an investor who gets royalty payments on mineral rights investment. They get an income share on the generated minerals that are in the leased property.
Oil and Gas Rights – The gas and oil makes it difficult to outline mineral right by a specific region or well. The oil is fluid and flows into joints and faults. The reserves thus can spread to adjoining land tracts and subsurface. Such resources are called fugitive resources which gives a right of the rule to capture. If the right is on a certain property, then the right is valid from any adjoining property on the fluid flown from this property.
How do the rights work?
Mineral rights provide the owner permission to make use of the land surface for accessing the minerals present for production and exploration. The mineral rights owner can sell, give as a gift or lease them on a property. They can be passed down from a generation to another regardless of ownership changes of the associated property. They, however, come along with respective taxes.
How to buy mineral rights?
To buy mineral rights, there are plenty of opportunities that the US offers. There are on the rise with the selling of the Federal lands. There are several options to lease, buy, and make an investment in hard rock royalties, gas, and oil mineral rights.
By navigating ownership structures, types of mineral rights, and abiding by laws, you can buy mineral rights. However, doing this on an individual level can get difficult and confusing. Hiring a specialist to assist you in calculating the value of mineral rights precisely will help you prevent unnecessary frustration and costly mistakes in the US mineral rights market.
These professionals are:
- Mineral rights consultant
- Lawyers and realtors
- Gas and upstream oil companies
- Mineral rights locations
Some factors to keep in mind when buying mineral rights
- Where to buy-Mineral rights purchases are done through brokers, sales, listings, auctions, negotiated sales, sealed bids, and direct from mineral owners.
- The process of buying mineral rights is based on the source of purchase.
- Due diligence is vital.
- Having sufficient cash is also essential.
The buying process involves:
Plan – An acquisition plan with the location of purchase should be sorted first.
Browse – The easiest way to acquire mineral rights is through an auction house. This could be through sealed bids, auction frequency from weekly to bi-weekly, online bidding, and negotiated sales.
Research – Do your evaluation and finalize the location of minerals availability, ownership verification, and amount of interest.
Offer/Bid – Submit your offer.
Pay – Through wiring, transfer the respective funds to get the mineral deed signed and sent to the county clerk or you.
Transfer – Transfer of ownership of minerals is done in your name. You get to pay status.
Manage – Handle the new minerals by keeping records.
Due diligence – This step is essential to avoid a bad investment or wrong ownership.
US laws on mineral rights and the policies have evolved by state and through the federal system. For investors, mineral rights buying, leasing, and royalties need expertise. Knowing different types of mineral rights and buying them can help you make money and carry the exploration, excavation, development, and other works of minerals found on and under the surface of a property. They pass on to generations with taxes.
By Nikhila Natarajan
In a continuing study on the effects of machine learning (ML) on public conversation, Twitter has confirmed that its algorithms amplify right-leaning political content. "In six out of seven countries - all but Germany - tweets posted by accounts from the political right receive more algorithmic amplification than the political left when studied as a group," Twitter blogged.
"Right-leaning news outlets, as defined by the independent organisations, see greater algorithmic amplification on Twitter compared to left-leaning news outlets." Since 2016, Twitter users are able to choose between viewing algorithmically ordered tweets first in their home timeline or viewing the most recent tweets in reverse chronological order.
"An algorithmic home timeline displays a stream of tweets from accounts we have chosen to follow on Twitter, as well as recommendations of other content Twitter thinks we might be interested in based on accounts we interact with frequently, tweets we engage with, and more. "As a result, what we see on our timeline is a function of how we interact with Twitter's algorithmic system, as well as how the system is designed."
The new research is based on tweets of elected officials of House of Commons members in Canada, the French National Assembly, the German Bundestag, House of Representatives in Japan, Congress of Deputies of Spain, House of Commons in the UK, and official and personal accounts of House of Representatives and Senate members in the US, as well as news outlets, from April 1 to August 15, 2020.
Tweets about political content from elected officials, regardless of party or whether the party is in power, do see algorithmic amplification when compared to political content on the reverse chronological timeline. | Photo by Sara Kurfeß on Unsplash
The study was conducted by Ferenc Huszar (Twitter, University of Cambridge), Sofia Ira Ktena (now at DeepMind Technologies), Conor O'Brien (Twitter), Luca Belli (Twitter), Andrew Schlaikjer (Twitter), and Moritz Hardt (UC Berkeley).
The questions probed were:
How much algorithmic amplification does political content from elected officials receive in Twitter's algorithmically ranked Home timeline versus in the reverse chronological timeline? Does this amplification vary across political parties or within a political party?
Are some types of political groups algorithmically amplified more than others? Are these trends consistent across countries?
Are some news outlets amplified more by algorithms than others? Does news media algorithmic amplification favour one side of the political spectrum more than the other?
Tweets about political content from elected officials, regardless of party or whether the party is in power, do see algorithmic amplification when compared to political content on the reverse chronological timeline. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: algorithmically, timeline, algorithmic, tweets, political, survey
Even as India celebrates reaching a milestone of 100 crore Covid vaccine doses, Snapdeal co-founder and COO Rohit Bansal on Friday lauded a man who facilitated 64 registrations for the vaccine on the CoWin portal. In a video shared on his Facebook and Twitter page, Bansal hailed Sonu Kumar as a "citizen celebrity".
Bansal said that Kumar not only helped "just co-workers and family but complete strangers too. With patience, empathy and uncanny jugaad". He added that Kumar joined him "many moons ago" and completed his open school from a parking lot.
"Education has helped this wonderful man enable others to get India back on track. Bravo! The CoWin portal on Thursday mentioned that a total of 100 crore vaccine doses has been administered so far to the eligible population under the vaccination drive in India, nine months after the nationwide inoculation programme was started to protect the people against Covid-19.
"It's a cause of significant celebration and happiness," Bansal said in the video. He said that while people just help a few around them, Kumar "bridged the digital gap" for 64 people, who were finding it difficult to register themselves online on the vaccine portal. Kumar said he doesn't feel that he has contributed much towards the 100 crore vaccine dose count. "I have been able to help only 64 people, if I was able to help more I would have been happier." (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: cowin, covid, india, people, Rohit bansal, Sonu kumar, vaccine
KAMPALA, UGANDA — Uganda has kickstarted a trial for the injectable HIV drugs cabotegravir and rilpivirine. Researchers and those living with HIV say the trial will likely end pill fatigue, fight stigma, improve adherence and ensure patients get the right dosage.
The two drugs have been in use as tablets. The World Health Organization last year licensed their use as injectables.
While the two injectables already went through trials in Europe and North America, this will be the first time they are tested in an African population for efficacy and safety in an African health care system.
Uganda is one of three African countries, along with Kenya and South Africa, which got approval from the WHO to carry out the trials. However, Kenya and South Africa have yet to acquire approvals to start their trials, expected by the end of the year.
Uganda and Kenya will both have three trial sites and there will be two in South Africa, with a total of 512 participants -- 202 from Uganda, 160 from Kenya and 150 from South Africa.
Dr. Ivan Mambule, the lead project researcher at the Joint Clinical Research Center, says participants will need one injection every two months.
"We are going to choose participants who are already on ART [anti-retroviral treatment] and are stable on ART. And we will randomize them to either continue on their normal treatment, which is the pill that they've been taking, or to switch them to this injectable. The injection is on the buttock," he expressed.
In this photo taken in Nov. 15, 2012 a patient, right, is attended to, at the US sponsored Themba Lethu, HIV/AIDS Clinic at the Helen Joseph hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa Image credit: VOA
Uganda has 1.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS. Barbara Kemigisa who is living with HIV and founded the Pill Power Foundation working with rural women, says the injectable drugs will increase adherence to treatment and ensure people get the right dosage.
"One of the things that affects adherence is the fact that people have to hide medicine. In the village, people are hiding medicine in the kitchen roof, in trees, in bushes, in a baby's shoe…If someone is wrapping the medicine in like five plastic bags and digs a hole in the garden and keeps the medicine there, by the time someone is taking that medicine, it's no longer medicine, it's poison," Kemigisa points out.
Nicholas Niwagaba, who has worked with young people living with HIV welcomes the trial, saying it will reduce the pill burden and fight stigma.
"Young people feel like, this is a lot of pills to take. Those who are on the first line, they will have to take one tablet a day. There are those who are on second line and they have to take more than one pill and they have to take it in the morning and in the evening. And of course, this requires you to have actually a balanced diet which is really a challenge for most of young people especially those from vulnerable communities," he says.
According to the WHO, there are 25.7 million people living with HIV in Africa. With only the pill currently available to manage the scourge, this injectable may come as a relief for people living with HIV/AIDS. (VOA/RN)
(This article is originally by Halima Athumani)
Keywords: HIV, WHO, Africa, Research, Uganda