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New Delhi, Oct 26: The discovery of a near-complete fossil of a Jurassic-period ‘fish lizard’ from a village in Gujarat’s Kutch district is “the most significant Indian fossil record” and throws light on India’s biological connectivity with other continents during that period over 150 million years ago, says a scientist involved with the excavation.
The fossil of an ichthyosaur, literally “fish lizard” in Greek, was the first near-complete and articulated reptile found in India as all the previous fossils found were fragmented, small, non-complete and inarticulate.
The find also represented the first record from the Jurassic period (199.6 to 145.5 million years ago) in India as well as the Mesozoic era (between 250 and 65 million years).
“This is a remarkable discovery not only because it is the first Jurassic Ichthyosaur record from India, but it also throws light on the evolution and diversity of Ichthyosaurs in the Indo-Madagascan region of the former Gondwanaland and India’s biological connectivity with other continents in the Jurassic,” Guntupalli Prasad, a vertebrate paleontologist at University of Delhi and also lead researcher of a paper published in journal PLOS ONE, told IANS.
The fossil measured between 5.0 and 5.5 m in length and is thought to belong to the Ophthalmosauridae family, which likely lived between around 165 and 90 million years ago. The tooth wear patterns suggest that it preyed on hard-skinned animals.
“Our finding is significant because it is the first Ichthyosaur record from the Jurassic rocks of India as well as South Asia and it is also the only articulated nearly complete skeleton from the Mesozoic rocks of India,” Prasad said.
“Ichthyosaur is the most significant Indian fossil record and throws light on the vertebrate fauna — their evolution, changing latitudinal position and climatic zones — inhabiting the Indian plate during its northward journey during the Mesozoic era,” he said.
“When identified at genus and species level it may throw some new light on marine faunal interchanges between Europe, Indo-Madagascan bioprovince and South America,” Prasad said.
The research began with a field study in the Kas Hill area near Lodai village, 30 km northeast of Bhuj town, where the researchers found small fragmentary bones as well as an in-situ rib of the animal.
Following this, a full scale excavation of the skeleton took place, which was completed in 10 days over 1,500 man-hours assisted by Masters students from Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma Kachchh and Delhi Universities.
The discovery has an important bearing on the diversity and evolution of Ichthyosaurs in the former southern super-continent Gondwanaland where these marine reptiles were believed to have scant presence as compared to their abundance in the Northern Hemisphere continents.
While many Ichthyosaur fossils have been found in North American and Europe, in the Southern Hemisphere, their fossil record has mostly been limited to South America and Australia.
Although India hosts extensive marine Jurassic deposits both in the Himalayan and peninsular Indian (Kutch, Jaisalmer) regions, until now no Ichthyosaur remains have been documented.
The discovery expands knowledge on morphological diversity and geographic distribution of Late Jurassic ophthalmosaurids, their dietary habits and palaeobiogeography, the scientist said.
During the excavation, Ichthyosaurs was found among fossils of ammonites and squid-like belemnites.
The vertebral column, ribs, neural spines, gastralia and two associated fins were found in articulation.
Additionally, a part of the snout representing the premaxilla was found at the anterior end of the preserved vertebral column and a few isolated teeth, vertebrae, jaw fragments, and other bone fragments were found scattered around the excavation site.
The skeleton is encased in a hard, ferruginous nodular matrix whereas the ribs are preserved in soft shale. The vertebral column preserved a portion of the cervical region, the entire dorsal region, and a part of the pre-flexural region and measures 3.6 m.
Taking into consideration its 36 cm long preserved premaxillary bone, missing skull region and the post-flexural vertebrae, it is inferred that the complete skeleton may have measured between 5 and 5.5 m in length.
The skeleton and two paddles were collected in six plaster jackets, before transporting it to the Kachch University, where it is kept on display for general public, the scientist said.
Prasad told IANS, that it is clear from the finding that Jurassic rocks of Kutch hold great potential for articulated skeletons of marine reptiles, and that the research team is preparing for more exploration in the Kutch mainland, island belt and surrounding hills.
Besides, they also plan to undertake an intensive search for marine vertebrate fossils in Jurassic sedimentary rocks of this region as well as other marine basins such as Jaisalmer Basin in Rajasthan and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh.(IANS)
Super model and actress Hailey Bieber said she is lucky to have a husband like Justin Bieber, refuting rumours of the ace singer not treating her properly. Hailey was speaking at singer Demi Lovato's podcast '4D With Demi Lovato', dailymail.co.uk reported.
Talking about her popstar husband and rumours around their marriage, Hailey said: "I think one of the biggest things is you have to know what the truth is behind everything. You know, there's so many narratives that float around about me, about him, about us together." She addressed the rumours point blank as she said: "There's one big fat narrative that goes around that's like, 'Justin is not nice to her, and that he mistreats her', and I'm just like, it's so far from the truth, and it's the complete and utter opposite."
Hailey went on to set the record straight about Justin, who she married in 2018. She said: "I really am lucky to say I'm with someone who is extremely respectful of me, who makes me feel special every single day. So when I see the opposite of that, I'm just like, 'Huh?' And everybody around who knows us personally would say the same thing." (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Hailey Bieber, Justin Bieber, husband, respectful, truth, married
Among the Tamil epics written during the Sangam age, only a few survived to this day. Manimegalai is one such. It is written as a sequel to the Sillapadikaram, taking the story forward of Kovalan and Madhavi's daughter, Manimegalai. The Sillapadikaram is about the injustice of the Madurai kingdom in the execution of Kovalan, which turned Kannagi, his wife into a goddess seeking vengeance for her husband's death. Kovalan, before his death, has an affair with a court dancer, Madhavi, and his daughter, Manimegalai, is said to begin a different tradition among the Tamils.
The epic, written by Sattanar, introduces Buddhism to Dravidian culture, something that has been alien to them for years. Manimegalai is the protagonist, who flees constantly from the pursuit of Chola prince Udhayakumara, and tries to lead an ascetic life. Throughout the plot, Buddhist tenets are used to avoid the culmination of a love-story. Manimegalai is believed to be the anti-love story sequel to the Sillapadikaram.
A complete work of Tamil epic written by hand on leaves Image source: wikimedia commons
The Sillapadikaram was written by a Jain monk, Illango Adigal, and Sattanar, uses the sequel to question Jainism. It is almost a political battle between two new religions competing for a place in a predominantly Hindu society. Parts of Manimegalai even go to the extent of opening ridiculing Jain practices and beliefs.
Critics of Tamil literature have stated that while the Tamil epics have great poetic significance, they are inferior to other world epics when it comes to clearly portraying religious affiliations. In fact, they refer to the newer religions with an infant's perspective. Some scholars have found that Sillapadikaram has more ethical substance than its sequel, but in and of itself, despite being written by a Jain monk, reads like Hindu poetry (Subhramanya Aiyar, 1906).
Keywords: Manimegalai, Sillapadikaram, Tamil Epic, Sattanar, Ilango Adigal, Chola kingdom, Sangam Age, Buddhism
The Covid-19 pandemic could act as an inflection point to shift India's growth model from being consumption driven to investments-led. In its Ecoscope report, Motilal Oswal Financial Services, said: "With Covid-19 hurting India's 'Household' (HH) and 'Government' sectors adversely, the continuity of strong consumption growth is in question."
"On the contrary, with listed companies' financial positions improving and an uptick in household investments in the Real Estate sector (called physical savings), the narrative of investment-led recovery is gaining momentum." The report prescribed that various economic participants - households, governments, listed companies, and unlisted corporates -- to increase their fixed asset investments in the immediate future based on their financial position.
The Covid-19 pandemic could act as an inflection point to shift India's growth model from being consumption driven to investments-led. | Photo by Fusion Medical Animation on Unsplash
At present, the listed and unlisted corporate sector accounts for only about half of total investments in India. The 'HH' sector including unincorporated enterprises accounts for 35-40 per cent in India's investments, while the remaining 12-13 per cent is contributed by centre and states governments. Besides, the report cited that demand environment is expected to remain subdued due to weak financial position of 'HH' and government sector.
"Despite household investments picking up strongly in 2HFY21, given that Indian households bore the maximum brunt of Covid-led losses in CY20 (and CY21), we believe household spending would remain subdued over the next few years." It further pointed out that unless 'HH', 'Unlisted Corporate', and government sectors can improve their financial positions -- leading to a demand uptick -- a strong revival in investments seems challenging. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: India, covid, pandemic, growth, household, government, investment