IIT-M researchers develop algorithms to detect MS with accuracy

0

ALS_cross

New Delhi: Researchers at IIT-Madras (IIT-M) have developed algorithms that could help detect multiple sclerosis (MS) which, since it is visible as several small lesions, could be easily missed.

MS is a disease in which the protective sheath covering the nerves gets destroyed, disrupting the communication between the brain and the rest of the body. This leads to difficulty in speech, sight and the ability to move.

“The task of accurate delineation of regions (segmentation) of the brain affected with MS is a difficult and time-consuming affair. Owing to this, significant variability can be observed in the regions marked by different radiologists on the same image. In case of MS, only 50 percent of the marked areas would match each other,” Ganapathy Krishnamurthi, professor in IIT-M’s department of engineering design, who led the research, told a media outlet.

He added that the team’s research focusses on development of automated methods to perform accurate segmentation of disorders, such as MS and Glioma.

Explaining further, he said that these segmentations were important for doctors to obtain quantitative metrics for treatment monitoring and planning, as well as for surgical operations.

The number of multiple sclerosis patients has increased in India in recent years. It is estimated that there are between 100,000 and 200,000 MS patients in India. According to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, which carried out a study in 2013 on the patients of multiple sclerosis it treats, about 70-80 percent of patients were in the 18-35 age group.

Krishnamurthi shared that while working in collaboration with Thiruvananthapuram’s Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, the team identified that accurate labelling of disorder-affected regions in brain MRI could be a difficult affair due to its “complex shape and vague boundaries”.

“Moreover, it is a tedious task since radiologists cannot visualize in 3D and the task needs to be performed slice by slice,” he said.

He added that this led to the research on automated methods for identification of glioma (brain tumors) affected regions from MRI images.

“However, the core algorithms developed in the process were such that they could be used in the detection of other disorders as well. Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic disease which is visible as several small lesions which can be easily missed. This being a particularly difficult task, we decided to extend the research scope and tackle this problem as well,” he said.

The symptoms of MS include weakness or numbness of limbs, blurring, partial or complete loss of vision, slurred speech, dizziness, tremors, lack of coordination and tingling sensation or pain in the body.

The team, comprising Suthirth Vaidya and Abhijith Chunduru, final year integrated masters (B.Tech+M.Tech) students from the engineering design department under the guidance of Krishnamurthi and M. Ramanathan, used technology known as ‘Deep Learning’, which is inspired by advances in neuroscience and is loosely based on the interpretation of information processing and communication within the nervous system.

“Deep Learning is one of the recent methods developed in machine learning, based on the interpretation of how human brain and nervous systems – the neural networks- work. These networks consist of stacked layers consisting of several mathematical models of neurons, which is the computational equivalent of information processing in the brain. Although these methods have been around for more than a decade, recent developments in computational resources have made large and complex networks with near-human performance possible,” Krishnamurthi explained.

Voice recognition on Android smartphone, Google’s self-driving car and automatic photo tagging feature on Facebook are all powered by Deep Learning.

The team, which emerged victorious in the recently held Longitudinal Multiple Sclerosis Segmentation challenge at International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015 at New York, is currently in the process of building a software tool that can be used by clinicians.

“Our next steps in this endeavor would be to test extensively with more clinical data to assess the effectiveness of the software and subsequently deploy the software for use by our clinical collaborators. Based on the performance in a clinical setting (purely for evaluation) we will try to get regulatory approval for our software. Since training accurate models require large amounts of data, ethical committee approvals from various hospitals would be required. We are already in collaboration with Sree Chitra Thirunal Hospital and are confident of seeing the product put in use in a span of two to four years,” he said.

So, will it make MS treatment/diagnosis cheaper?

“These methods when implemented can substantially reduce the time and cost for diagnosis of various brain diseases like MS. The algorithms for image analysis are basically tools for diagnosis and aid clinicians to judge progression of disease and efficacy of therapy. For instance, in large clinical trials, these automated algorithms can be used to analyze patient data,” Krishnamurthi added.

(IANS)

Next Story

Chilika Lake after Restoration has Benefitted Over 2 Lakh Fishermen, says IIT-Madras Report

IIT-Madras's intervention in Chilika lake restoration and continuous monitoring has benefitted over 200,000 fishermen

0
Chilika lake
Continuous monitoring has benefitted over 200,000 fishermen living in 132 villages. WikimediaCommons

The Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT-M) on Friday said its researchers undertook a major restoration project at the famous Chilika Lake – the largest brackish water body in Asia and the first Ramsar site of India – located in Odisha to help in tripling the population of the Irrawaddy dolphins while also benefitting over 2 lakh fishermen.

According to IIT-M, its intervention in the year 2000 and continuous monitoring since then has benefitted over 200,000 fishermen living in 132 villages as it resulted in a seven-fold increase of fish catch and tourists to co-exist with the lake ecosystem with minimal disturbance to the environment.

Due to the successful restoration, the lake was removed from the threatened list (Montreux record) 1st from Asia. Chilika Development Authority also received the Ramsar Wetland Conservation Award and Evian special prize 2002 for outstanding achievement.

In 1981, Chilika Lake was designated the first Indian wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, an international treaty for the conservation of wetlands. The Chilika lagoon is over 4,000 years old and spread over the Puri, Khurda and Ganjam districts of Odisha.

Lake Chilika
The Indian Institute of Technology Madras said its researchers undertook a major restoration project at the famous Chilika Lake which has now benefitted many fishermen. WikimediaCommons

The highly productive ecosystem of the lake supports the livelihood for fishermen and also acts as drainage for Mahanadi river basin. The lake was in a degraded condition and included in the threatened list (Montreux Record) by Ramsar Convention in 1993. This warranted urgent action for restoration of the lake.

The hydrodynamic regime of the lagoon was affected due to shifting of the mouth towards the northeast and subsequent reduction of seawater into the lake. Consequently, the ecology, biodiversity and economy of the area were also affected. The present study deals with the intervention carried out in October 2000 to open the mouth 18 kms south of the shifted mouth, IITM said.

Also Read: Lady Gaga’s ‘Chromatica’ Album Launches

“The Chilika Lake has restored with a cost of Rs 10 crore by opening the mouth and other related works in six months’ time which has resulted in fish catch worth Rs 100 crore and revenue of Rs 35 crore due to tourism every year,” R. Sundaravadivelu, Institute Chair Professor, Department of Ocean Engineering, IIT-M said. (IANS)

Next Story

Apple Manages to Open Nearly Half of its Retail Stores Worldwide

Apple has reopened nearly 256 retail stores globally

0
Apple
Nearly half of Apple retail stores are now open globally. Pixabay

Apple has managed to reopen nearly 256 retail stores out of more than 500 worldwide, as it aims to safely restart operations.

Apple closed all its retail stores outside Greater China in March as COVID-19 pandemic spread. All the Apple stores in Greater China are now open.

“In China, and later around the world, we were one of the first companies to close our stores. In Greater China, we saw the importance of swift action — and the critical importance of social distance — to slow the virus’ spread,” according to Apple’s head of retail Deidre O’Brien.

Apple
Apple is conducting enhanced deep cleanings at their stores to prevent the spread of Coronavirus. Pixabay

“As time has gone on, we’ve continued to refine and expand our in-store health and safety measures, which have proven so effective in places like Greater China, where our stores have been safely open for months,” he added.

Also Read: VandaTheGod: Researchers Identify Super Hacker With 4,820 Records of Hacked Websites

Apple is taking some additional steps in most places. Throughout the day, Apple is conducting enhanced deep cleanings that place special emphasis on all surfaces, display products, and highly trafficked areas.

“Face coverings will be required for all of our teams and customers, and we will provide them to customers who don’t bring their own. Temperature checks will be conducted at the door, and posted health questions will screen for those with symptoms — like cough or fever — or who have had recent exposure to someone infected with COVID-19,” O’Brien elaborated. (IANS)

Next Story

Oil Pulling: An Ayurvedic Treatment to Boost Immunity

Oil pulling is an ancient treatment dateing back to more than 3,000 years

0
Oil pulling
Oil pulling can boost your Immunity. Pixabay

Oil pulling is regarded as an ancient Ayurveda treatment that dates back to more than 3,000 years.

Considered as a detoxification therapy, it is done by taking a spoonful of cold pressed virgin oil (preferably coconut oil) and swishing it in your mouth for about 5 minutes, similar to using a mouthwash. The purpose of oil pulling is to swish the oil around in your mouth, between the teeth to get rid of bacteria in the mouth, spit it out and immediately rinse with some warm water.

Nutritionist Sheryl Salis shares how oil pulling that can help improve your immunity, uses of virgin coconut oil and the method of oil pulling:

Oil pulling is an alternative health practice gaining traction in recent times not only for oral health but also as an immunity boosting measure. As the mouth is a home to millions of microbes including bacteria, the oil pulling process helps get rid of these bacteria through swishing oil in the mouth and in-between the teeth. Swishing the oil for a prolonged period cleanses the mouth and decreases the bacterial load. Not only does this promote oral hygiene, this technique aids in overall health and well-being.

hand-sanitize
Other than basic precautions like sanitizing and washing hands, immunty is the key factor to protect yourself from COVID-19 pandemic. Pixabay

With the COVID-19 pandemic spread across the globe, it is recommended to build and maintain a strong immune system to help combat the risk of being infected. While external precautionary measures like sanitizing and washing hands are essential, maintaining basic hygiene measures and eating healthy to build one’s immunity is of utmost importance.

Using virgin coconut oil to build immunity

Cold pressed virgin coconut oil is a superfood recommended for its myriad health benefits; it is a rich source of naturally occurring Lauric acid and contains Vitamin E which helps to improve body’s immunity. The medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs) that contain lauric acid and caprylic acid strengthens the immune system and has anti-viral properties. Therefore, Adding 2 spoons of virgin coconut oil to the diet every day can help improve the immunity and maintain a healthy, holistic lifestyle.

In most Indian household’s, virgin coconut oil is a staple for consumption and beauty practices and is slowly making its way in the mainstream wellness community for oil pulling. Known for its immune boosting properties, virgin coconut oil can be introduced as an effective technique into your heath regime.

Oil Pulling
Virgin coconut oil is a staple for consumption and beauty practices. Pixabay

How to do it?

eStart by swishing it in your mouth on an empty stomach, first thing in the morning

Also Read: Ace Learning From Home During Lockdown

eTake about 1 tablespoon of virgin coconut oil in the mouth and swish it for about 3-5 minutes.

eDiscard the oil by spitting it out. Do not swallow the oil as you will ingest the toxins with it as well

eRinse the mouth with warm water and brush your teeth as usual

eRepeat the process 3-4 times a week. (IANS)