Friday December 14, 2018

Immune System Can Be in Danger For An Entire Week Due to Mosquito Saliva

For the study, appearing in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the team worked with a mouse model of the human immune system.

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Components in the mosquito saliva can trigger an unexpected and long-lasting immune responses -- up to seven days post-bite, say scientists.
Mosquito saliva can make you ill for around a week. Pixabay
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Components in the mosquito saliva can trigger an unexpected and long-lasting immune responses — up to seven days post-bite, say scientists.

The researchers found that more than 100 proteins in mosquito saliva are mediating the effects on the immune system, or may help the virus become more infectious.

Identifying these proteins could help design strategies to fight transmission of dengue fever as well as other diseases caused by viruses also transmitted by Aedes aegypti, such as Zika virus, chikungunya virus and yellow fever virus, the researchers said.

“We found that mosquito-delivered saliva induced a varied and complex immune response we were not anticipating,” said Silke Paust, Assistant Professor at Baylor and Texas Children’s Hospital.

“Billions of people worldwide are exposed to diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, and many of these conditions do not have effective treatments,” added Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Professor at the Baylor College of Medicine in Texas, US.

For the study, appearing in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the team worked with a mouse model of the human immune system.

Components in the mosquito saliva can trigger an unexpected and long-lasting immune responses -- up to seven days post-bite, say scientists.
Mosquito Saliva can have sever effects on your immune system. Pixabay

Previously, the team demonstrated that mosquito-bite delivery and needle-injection delivery of dengue virus in these “humanised mice” led to significantly different disease developments

They found that mosquitoes are not just acting like “syringes” to merely inject viruses, but their saliva seems to contribute significantly to the development of the disease.

In the new study, the team tested the effect of virus-free mosquito saliva on humanised mice and compared the results with those obtained from humanised mice that had not been bitten by mosquitoes.

 

Evidence to immune responses — up to seven days post-bite — was found in multiple tissue types, including blood, skin and bone marrow, the researchers said.

“For instance, both the immune cell responses and the cytokine levels were affected. We saw activation of T helper cells 1, which generally contribute to antiviral immunity, as well as activation of T helper cells 2, which have been linked to allergic responses,” Paust said.

“The diversity of the immune response was most striking to me. This is surprising given that no actual infection with any type of infectious agent occurred,” he noted. (IANS)

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Dengue fever may increase risk of stroke: Study

For the study, published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, the researchers looked at data on 13,787 patients

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Aedes
Dengue is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes mosquito that typically attacks during day time. Pixabay
  • Dengue fever can increase the risk of stroke
  • Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease
  • The research was started in around 2012

People with dengue fever may have a higher risk of stroke, especially in the first two months following infection, a new study has claimed.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that infects at least 100 million people every year around the world, with about 4 billion people at risk of the illness, which includes dengue hemorrhagic fever that can lead to spontaneous bleeding, organ failure and death.

“Clinicians in dengue-endemic areas should be aware of this association, especially for patients with dengue who have neurologic deficits or for patients with stroke who have unexplained fever,” said co-author Chia-Hung Kao from the China Medical University Hospital in Taiwan.

Stroke is a severe neurologic complication of dengue fever, described in only a few case reports. The incidence and risk factors for stroke in patients with dengue remain unclear, the researchers said.

We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the risk of stroke in patients with dengue, the researchers added.

People suffering dengue fever have higher risk of suffering from strokes.
People suffering dengue fever have higher risk of suffering from strokes.

For the study, published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, the researchers looked at data on 13,787 patients (most between 31 and 60 years of age) with newly diagnosed dengue between 2000 and 2012. They found the incidence of stroke was higher in people with dengue fever.

The risk of stroke was as high as 2.49 times in the first two months of infection with dengue relative to control patients who did not have dengue,” the researchers said.

Also Read: Decoded: Why Mosquitoes Bite You

“Our findings may help with clinical risk evaluation and may serve as a basis for further investigation of the pathogenesis of dengue-related stroke,” they noted. IANS