Sunday December 15, 2019

Immune System Can Be in Danger For An Entire Week Due to Mosquito Saliva

For the study, appearing in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the team worked with a mouse model of the human immune system.

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Components in the mosquito saliva can trigger an unexpected and long-lasting immune responses -- up to seven days post-bite, say scientists.
Mosquito saliva can make you ill for around a week. Pixabay

Components in the mosquito saliva can trigger an unexpected and long-lasting immune responses — up to seven days post-bite, say scientists.

The researchers found that more than 100 proteins in mosquito saliva are mediating the effects on the immune system, or may help the virus become more infectious.

Identifying these proteins could help design strategies to fight transmission of dengue fever as well as other diseases caused by viruses also transmitted by Aedes aegypti, such as Zika virus, chikungunya virus and yellow fever virus, the researchers said.

“We found that mosquito-delivered saliva induced a varied and complex immune response we were not anticipating,” said Silke Paust, Assistant Professor at Baylor and Texas Children’s Hospital.

“Billions of people worldwide are exposed to diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, and many of these conditions do not have effective treatments,” added Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Professor at the Baylor College of Medicine in Texas, US.

For the study, appearing in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the team worked with a mouse model of the human immune system.

Components in the mosquito saliva can trigger an unexpected and long-lasting immune responses -- up to seven days post-bite, say scientists.
Mosquito Saliva can have sever effects on your immune system. Pixabay

Previously, the team demonstrated that mosquito-bite delivery and needle-injection delivery of dengue virus in these “humanised mice” led to significantly different disease developments

They found that mosquitoes are not just acting like “syringes” to merely inject viruses, but their saliva seems to contribute significantly to the development of the disease.

In the new study, the team tested the effect of virus-free mosquito saliva on humanised mice and compared the results with those obtained from humanised mice that had not been bitten by mosquitoes.

 

Evidence to immune responses — up to seven days post-bite — was found in multiple tissue types, including blood, skin and bone marrow, the researchers said.

“For instance, both the immune cell responses and the cytokine levels were affected. We saw activation of T helper cells 1, which generally contribute to antiviral immunity, as well as activation of T helper cells 2, which have been linked to allergic responses,” Paust said.

“The diversity of the immune response was most striking to me. This is surprising given that no actual infection with any type of infectious agent occurred,” he noted. (IANS)

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Saliva Test can Detect Oropharyngeal Cancer

Saliva test can detect mouth, throat cancer early

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Saliva test shows promise for earlier and easier detection of mouth and throat cancer. Pixabay

A non-invasive saliva test can detect human papilloma virus-16 — the strain associated with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) — showing promise for earlier and easier detection of mouth and throat cancer, report researchers.

The novel technique detected OPC in whole saliva in 40 per cent of patients tested and 80 per cent of confirmed OPC patients.

OPC has an approximate incidence of 115,000 cases per year worldwide and is one of the fastest-rising cancers owing to increasing HPV-related incidence, especially in younger patients.

“It is paramount that surveillance methods are developed to improve early detection and outcomes,” said co-lead investigator Tony Jun Huang from Duke University in the US.

Cancers that occur in the back of the mouth and upper throat are often not diagnosed until they become advanced, partly because their location makes them difficult to see during routine clinical exams.

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Cancers that occur in the back of the mouth and upper throat are often not diagnosed until they become advanced. Pixabay

“The successful detection of HPV from salivary exosomes isolated by our acoustofluidic platform offers distinct advantages, including early detection, risk assessment and screening,” added Dr Huang in a paper published in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

This technique may also help physicians predict which patients will respond well to radiation therapy or achieve longer progression-free survival.

In the study, investigators analyzed saliva samples from 10 patients diagnosed with HPV-OPC using traditional methods.

They found that the technique identified the tumour biomarker in 80 per cent of the cases when coupled with the traditional detection method called droplet digital PCR.

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“The saliva exosome liquid biopsy is an effective early detection and risk assessment approach for OPC,” said co-lead investigator David TW Wong from University of California-Los Angeles.

According to the researchers, this technology can also be used to analyze other biofluids such as blood, urine and plasma. (IANS)