Thursday August 22, 2019

Immune System Can Be in Danger For An Entire Week Due to Mosquito Saliva

For the study, appearing in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the team worked with a mouse model of the human immune system.

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Components in the mosquito saliva can trigger an unexpected and long-lasting immune responses -- up to seven days post-bite, say scientists.
Mosquito saliva can make you ill for around a week. Pixabay

Components in the mosquito saliva can trigger an unexpected and long-lasting immune responses — up to seven days post-bite, say scientists.

The researchers found that more than 100 proteins in mosquito saliva are mediating the effects on the immune system, or may help the virus become more infectious.

Identifying these proteins could help design strategies to fight transmission of dengue fever as well as other diseases caused by viruses also transmitted by Aedes aegypti, such as Zika virus, chikungunya virus and yellow fever virus, the researchers said.

“We found that mosquito-delivered saliva induced a varied and complex immune response we were not anticipating,” said Silke Paust, Assistant Professor at Baylor and Texas Children’s Hospital.

“Billions of people worldwide are exposed to diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, and many of these conditions do not have effective treatments,” added Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Professor at the Baylor College of Medicine in Texas, US.

For the study, appearing in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the team worked with a mouse model of the human immune system.

Components in the mosquito saliva can trigger an unexpected and long-lasting immune responses -- up to seven days post-bite, say scientists.
Mosquito Saliva can have sever effects on your immune system. Pixabay

Previously, the team demonstrated that mosquito-bite delivery and needle-injection delivery of dengue virus in these “humanised mice” led to significantly different disease developments

They found that mosquitoes are not just acting like “syringes” to merely inject viruses, but their saliva seems to contribute significantly to the development of the disease.

In the new study, the team tested the effect of virus-free mosquito saliva on humanised mice and compared the results with those obtained from humanised mice that had not been bitten by mosquitoes.

 

Evidence to immune responses — up to seven days post-bite — was found in multiple tissue types, including blood, skin and bone marrow, the researchers said.

“For instance, both the immune cell responses and the cytokine levels were affected. We saw activation of T helper cells 1, which generally contribute to antiviral immunity, as well as activation of T helper cells 2, which have been linked to allergic responses,” Paust said.

“The diversity of the immune response was most striking to me. This is surprising given that no actual infection with any type of infectious agent occurred,” he noted. (IANS)

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TCD Collaborates with Tata Memorial Centre to Bring Saliva-Based Test for Screening Oral Cancer to India

The core objective of this research project is to detect presence of mutations in a non-invasive method from the tumour in patients with oral cancer

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Medicare covers more than 60 million seniors and people with disabilities. Pixabay

With an aim to bring a saliva-based test for screening oral cancer to India, the Tata Centre for Development (TCD) at Chicago University in the US on Wednesday announced collaboration with the Tata Memorial Centre (TMC) in Mumbai.

The test could be used for patients to detect tumour DNA from mouth cancers. The core objective of this research project is to detect presence of mutations in a non-invasive method from the tumour in patients with oral cancer. ­

Currently, observational clinical trial is going on throughout India to develop the test, the Tata Centre for Development said in a statement.

This collaboration is expected to augment the efforts towards collecting tumour tissue and matched saliva from patients with oral cancer.

TCD, Saliva, Cancer
With an aim to bring a saliva-based test for screening oral cancer to India, the Tata Centre for Development (TCD) at Chicago University in the US on Wednesday announced collaboration. Pixabay

“Our collaboration with the Tata Memorial Centre will help us in developing the assay and conducting the trial,” said Nishant Agrawal, Professor at University of Chicago Medical Center.

Oral cancer ranks among the top three types of cancer in India. It is also the leading cancer among men and the fifth most frequently occurring cancer in women.

India, reportedly, contributes nearly 60 per cent to the oral cancer burden worldwide, and the number of cases is expected to double by 2030. Unfortunately, 60-80 per cent of oral cancers are diagnosed at advanced stages when survival is well below 50 per cent.

“With recent advances in sequencing technology, we have been able to demonstrate that tumour DNA can be detected in saliva of patients. It is an easily accessible, non-invasive liquid biopsy method,” Agrawal said.

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Evidence suggests that if oral cancer is diagnosed early and treated as localised tumours, the five-year survival rate would significantly improve. The five-year survival rate for stage III or IV cancer is between 20 and 40 per cent as opposed to 70-90 per cent for stage I or II cancer.

“The research holds promise for both the patients and the doctors because it gives them an opportunity to address pre-cancerous lesions and early detection of invasive cancer and treat it with simple interventions,” said Rajendra Badwe, Director at Tata Memorial Centre in Mumbai. (IANS)