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The risks of child marriage. Wikimedia

July 15, 2017: Indians could be saving an amount of $5 billion (Rs 33,500 crore) in health care over a period of seven years, according to a new report by the World Bank and International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), if it eliminates child marriage and early childbirth. This amount is equivalent to the country’s 2017-18 higher education budget of Rs 33,329 crore.

The report concluded that $17 billion (Rs 1.14 lakh crore) could be saved globally across 18 countries by the year 2030 of which India accounts for $10 billion (62%) due to its large population. The basis of the study is quite rational as prohibiting early marriage and births reduces population growth, which in turn reduces pressure on government budgets.

Lower population growth across 106 countries from ending child marriage can lead to $566 billion savings per year in 2030.

ALSO READ: Sexual Exploitation of Women and Girls in Kenya in Return for Food

Child brides face violence, abuse and exposure to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), are more likely to drop out of school and give birth at an early age.
According to World Health Organisation (WHO), adolescent pregnancy can also lead to several health problems such as anaemia, malaria, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, postpartum haemorrhage and mental disorders.

The proportion of girls marrying before legal age increased from 1.78% in 2001 to 2.45% in 2011 in urban India and declined from 2.75% to 2.43% in rural India over the same period. Furthermore, 70 districts spread across 13 states reported: “high incidence” of early marriages, which account for 21% of the country’s child marriages, as reported by IndiaSpend on June 9, 2017.

Another study carried by India Spend in 2015 showed that nearly 17 million Indian children between the ages of 10 and 19 are married. Six million children are born from them, which constitutes 47% of India’s population currently married. Of these married children, 76% (12.7 million) are girls.

The study conducted by World Bank and ICRW not only highlights the problem but also serves an economic dimension to the problem which could be an incentive for the economy as a whole, if eradicated completely.

– Prepared by a Staff Writer of Newsgram



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Milky Way galaxy as seen from Chitkul Valley

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has for the first time spotted signs of a planet transiting a star outside of the Milky Way galaxy, opening up a new avenue to search for exoplanets at greater distances than ever before.

The possible exoplanet -- or planets outside of our Solar System -- candidate is located in the spiral galaxy Messier 51 (M51), also called the Whirlpool Galaxy because of its distinctive profile, NASA said in a statement.

Astronomers have, so far, found all other known exoplanets and exoplanet candidates in the Milky Way galaxy, almost all of them less than about 3,000 light-years from Earth.

An exoplanet in M51 would be about 28 million light-years away, meaning it would be thousands of times farther away than those in the Milky Way, NASA said.

"We are trying to open up a whole new arena for finding other worlds by searching for planet candidates at X-ray wavelengths, a strategy that makes it possible to discover them in other galaxies," said Rosanne Di Stefano of the Center for Astrophysics at Harvard and Smithsonian (CfA) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who led the study.

The findings are published in the journal Nature Astronomy.

The exoplanet candidate was spotted in a binary system called M51-ULS-1, located in M51. This binary system contains a black hole or neutron star orbiting a companion star with a mass about 20 times that of the Sun. The X-ray transit they found using Chandra data lasted about three hours, during which the X-ray emission decreased to zero.

Based on this and other information, the team estimates the exoplanet candidate in M51-ULS-1 would be roughly the size of Saturn and orbit the neutron star or black hole at about twice the distance of Saturn from the Sun.

The team looked for X-ray transits in three galaxies beyond the Milky Way galaxy, using both Chandra and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton. Their search covered 55 systems in M51, 64 systems in Messier 101 (the "Pinwheel" galaxy), and 119 systems in Messier 104 (the "Sombrero" galaxy).

However, more data would be needed to verify the interpretation as an extragalactic exoplanet. One challenge is that the planet candidate's large orbit means it would not cross in front of its binary partner again for about 70 years, thwarting any attempts for a confirming observation for decades, NASA said.

Named in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, the Chandra X-ray Observatory is the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. It has eight times greater resolution and is able to detect sources more than 20-times fainter than any previous X-ray telescope.

Known to the world as Chandra (which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit), Chandrasekhar was widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the twentieth century. (IANS/JB)

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