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Indian diaspora numbers highest in world

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United Nations: According to the latest report by UN survey on international migrant trends, Indian diaspora is the largest in the world with 16 million Indians living outside India in 2015.

The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) conducted a survey which stated that the number of international migrants living in a country has reached 244 million in 2015 and also was increased by 41 percent in comparison to 2000.

The Trends in International Migrant Stock mentioned that two-third of international migrants live in Asia (75 million) or Europe (76 million).

“The rise in the number of international migrants reflects the increasing importance of international migration, which has become an integral part of our economies and societies,” said Wu Hongbo, UN Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs.

He further added, “Well-managed migration brings important benefits to countries of origin and destination, as well as to migrants and their families.”

After Indian diaspora population, Russia and Mexico have the largest diaspora in the world. The survey stated that 16 million people were living outside India as there was an increase from 6.7 million in 1990.

Mexico’s diaspora population is 12 million. Russia, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Pakistan and China were other countries with large diaspora population.

Of the 20 countries with the largest number of international migrants living abroad, 11 were in Asia, 6 in Europe, and one each in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Northern America, the survey said.

Furthermore, the survey stated that, two-third of all international migrants were living in only 20 countries in 2015, beginning with the US, which had 19 per cent of all migrants at 46.6 million, followed by Germany, Russia, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and the United Arab Emirates.

Out of these 20 countries, India is ranked 12th having 5.2 million migrants in 2015, a drop from 7.5 million in 1990.

International migrants had increased faster than the world’s population, the UN data shows. As a result, the number of migrants in the global population raced up to 3.3 per cent in 2015 from 2.8 per cent in 2000.

Most of the international migrants in 2015 lived in Asia or Europe, the survey said, adding that Asia has half of the international migrants worldwide.

Northern America has the third largest international migrants, followed by Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Oceania. Asia had more international migrants compared to any other region between 2000 and 2015.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development which was adopted in September 2015 at the UN by world leaders, stresses the reality of migration. Countries are told to implement well-managed and planned migration policies, respect migrant workers  labour rights, eradicate human trafficking, and reduce the transaction costs of migrant remittances.

The Agenda also focused on  the vulnerability of migrants, refugees and IDPs and weighs that forced displacement and related humanitarian crises threaten to reverse much of the development progress achieved in last few decades.

Migrants should be protected, said Jan Eliasson UN Deputy Secretary-General.

“We need to take greater responsibility for protecting the lives of many thousands of migrants – men, women and children – who are compelled to undertake dangerous and sometimes fatal journeys. Those forced to flee should never be denied safe haven or rescue. Migrants, as all people, deserve protection and empathy,” Eliasson added.(Inputs from agencies) (Image:NarendraModi.in)

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Diesel Exhaust Converted Into Ink by Indian Innovators To Battle Air Pollution

Supervised by young engineers, workers at the start-up company Chakr Innovation in New Delhi cut and weld sheets of metal to make devices that will capture black plumes of smoke from diesel generators and convert it into ink.

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representational image. VOA

Supervised by young engineers, workers at the start-up company Chakr Innovation in New Delhi cut and weld sheets of metal to make devices that will capture black plumes of smoke from diesel generators and convert it into ink.

In a cabin, young engineers pore over drawings and hunch over computers as they explore more applications of the technology that they hope will aid progress in cleaning up the Indian capital’s toxic air – among the world’s dirtiest.

While the millions of cars that ply Delhi’s streets are usually blamed for the city’s deadly air pollution, another big culprit is the massive diesel generators used by industries and buildings to light up homes and offices during outages when power from the grid switches off – a frequent occurrence in summer. Installed in backyards and basements, they stay away from the public eye.

“Although vehicular emissions are the show stoppers, they are the ones which get the media attention, the silent polluters are the diesel generators,” says Arpit Dhupar, one of the three engineers who co-founded the start up.

The idea that this polluting smoke needs attention struck Dhupar three years ago as he sipped a glass of sugarcane juice at a roadside vendor and saw a wall blackened with the fumes of a diesel generator he was using.

It jolted him into joining with two others who co-founded the start-up to find a solution. Dhupar had experienced first hand the deadly impact of this pollution as he developed respiratory problems growing up in Delhi.

An Indian girls holds a banner during a protest against air pollution in New Delhi, India, Nov. 6, 2016.
An Indian girls holds a banner during a protest against air pollution in New Delhi, India, Nov. 6, 2016.

A new business

As the city’s dirty air becomes a serious health hazard for many citizens, it has turned into both a calling and a business opportunity for entrepreneurs looking at ways to improve air quality.

According to estimates, vehicles contribute 22 percent of the deadly PM 2.5 emissions in Delhi, while the share of diesel generators is about 15 percent. These emissions settle deep into the lungs, causing a host of respiratory problems.

After over two years of research and development, Chakr has begun selling devices to tap the diesel exhaust. They have been installed in 50 places, include public sector and private companies.

The technology involves cooling the exhaust in a “heat exchanger” where the tiny soot particles come together. These are then funneled into another chamber that captures 70 to 90 percent of the particulate matter. The carbon is isolated and converted into ink.

Among their first clients was one of the city’s top law firms, Jyoti Sagar Associates, which is housed in a building in Delhi’s business hub Gurgaon.

Making a contribution to minimizing the carbon footprint is a subject that is close to Sagar’s heart – his 32-year-old daughter has long suffered from the harmful effects of Delhi’s toxic air.

Motorists drive surrounded by smog, in New Delhi, India, Nov. 8, 2017.
Motorists drive surrounded by smog, in New Delhi, India, Nov. 8, 2017.

“This appealed to us straightaway, the technology is very impactful but is beautifully simple,” says Sagar. Since it could be retrofitted, it did not disrupt the day-to-day activities at the buzzing office. “Let’s be responsible. Let’s at least not leave behind a larger footprint of carbon. And if we can afford to control it, why not, it’s good for all,” he says.

At Chakr Innovation, cups, diaries and paper bags printed with the ink made from the exhaust serve as constant reminders of the amount of carbon emissions that would have escaped into the atmosphere.

There has been a lot of focus on improving Delhi’s air by reducing vehicular pollution and making more stringent norms for manufacturers, but the same has not happened for diesel generators. Although there are efforts to penalize businesses that dirty the atmosphere, this often prompts them to find ways to get around the norms.

Also Read: Exposure to Traffic-Related Pollution Poses Threat of Asthma in Kids

Tushar Mathur who joined the start up after working for ten years in the corporate sector feels converting smoke into ink is a viable solution. “Here is a technology which is completely sustainable, a win-win between businesses and environment,” says Mathur. (VOA)