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- Some common symptoms of Hepatitis are low-grade fever, body ache, lethargy, anorexia and joint pain
- In Western countries, Hepatitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic liver damage
New Delhi, July 28, 2017: Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. It can be caused by toxins, certain drugs, some diseases, heavy alcohol use, and bacterial and viral infections. Viral Hepatitis is a group of viral infections that affect the liver; the most common among these are Hepatitis A, B, C and E. Rarely other viruses like dengue, Chikungunya, herpes, and H1N1 can affect the liver. Although each can cause similar symptoms, they usually have different modes of transmission and can affect the liver differently.
Dr. Vinit Shah, Consultant Hepatologist, BGS Global Hospitals, low-grade fever, body ache, lethargy, anorexia and joint pain are some common symptoms. This is commonly called prodromal symptoms as it precedes the phase of liver attack by a period ranging from 1-2 weeks, mentioned ANI report.
Hepatitis B virus infection is an extremely important cause of viral hepatitis, 3-5 % of Indian population is the carrier for hepatitis B infection, and some may be negative with virus damaging liver that is Occult hepatitis B and picking up viral DNA in blood or liver tissue. The most common route of virus transmission in India is from mother to a child.
Mostly there are chances that the virus can remain dormant in the body without any liver damage- asymptomatic carrier and is incidentally diagnosed during health checkups or pre operative checkups before any surgery. But, in some cases it can cause acute liver failure, chronic damage to the liver -chronic hepatitis, progression to chronic liver damage- cirrhosis or liver cancer –HCC in patients. The virus is known to have a tendency of suddenly returning to active multiplication from dormancy and causing severe liver damage (reactivation of hepatitis B).
The high-risk groups are- pregnant women, health care professionals, sex workers or prior to proposed organ transplantation or chemotherapy administration and screening of them is of paramount importance. Once a patient is diagnosed with hepatitis, he gets referred to a specialized liver care team, further investigations involve testing the replication state of virus and extent of the liver damage so that return of virus to active multiplication and worsening chronic liver damage, liver cancer development are not missed.
The preventive measures involves vaccination of the high risk groups especially, screening pregnant ladies and managing their infection properly during pregnancy and breast feeding with appropriate oral medications, proper delivery of the baby with immediate dual vaccination (vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin) to the child, screening blood and immunological products, safe needle and syringe practices, active screening of family members of infected patients and vaccination of those who are negative. Treatment involves early identification of a subset of people with liver damage and treating with oral antiviral medications and regularly checking them.
Hepatitis C virus has same modes of transmission as hepatitis B and can similarly cause chronic liver damage, liver cirrhosis, decompensation or liver cancer. No vaccine is available for hepatitis C so identifying infected patients and aggressively treating them to achieve complete viral response (SVR) is the only way to prevent progression to liver cancer and decompensation. With an advent of anti-viral oral medications (DAA’s) treating, hepatitis C is very easy, cost effective and highly successful now. But this should be done as soon as hepatitis C patient is identified and then referring him/her to a liver specialist.
Hepatitis A and E are the commonly transmitted hepatotropic viruses transmitted due to poor hygiene, contaminated food and drinking water, poor sanitation that may lead to fecal-oral transmission. Pediatric age group (0-16 yrs old) is at risk for hepatitis A infection, in some cases, liver damage may be very severe (acute liver failure) leading to loss of liver function requiring liver transplantation.
Hepatitis E virus infection also has a similar way of transmission and pregnant ladies constitute the high-risk group for this viral infection and it is the most common cause of the disease during pregnancy.
In Western countries, it is increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic liver damage especially in post solid organ transplant recipients and as a result of consumption of contaminated pork, which is regarded as an important source of transmission. Prevention is again by ensuring proper hygiene and sanitation and vaccination of higher risk groups is in the research stage.
– prepared by Kritika Dua of NewsGram. Twitter @DKritika08
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A chewing gum laced with a plant-grown protein serves as a "trap" for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reducing viral load in saliva and potentially tamping down transmission, finds a new study.
The researchers exposed saliva samples from Covid-19 patients to the ACE2 gum and found that levels of viral RNA fell so dramatically to be almost undetectable, indicates the study published in the journal Molecular Therapy.
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"SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the salivary glands, and we know that when someone d sneezes, coughs, or speaks some of that virus can be expelled and reach others," said researcher Henry Daniell from the University of Pennsylvania in the US.
"This gum offers an opportunity to neutralise the virus in the saliva, giving us a simple way to possibly cut down on a source of disease transmission," Daniell added.
To test the chewing gum, the team grew angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in plants, paired with another compound that enables the protein to cross mucosal barriers and facilitates binding, and incorporated the resulting plant material into cinnamon-flavoured gum tablets.
Incubating samples obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs from Covid-positive patientsUnsplash
Also read: 1 in 3 COVID-19 survivors suffer mental illness
Incubating samples obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs from Covid-positive patients with the gum, they showed that the ACE2 present could neutralise SARS-CoV-2 viruses.
Those initial investigations were followed by others, in which viruses, less-pathogenic than SARS-CoV-2, were modified to express the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
The team observed that the gum largely prevented the viruses or viral particles from entering cells, either by blocking the ACE2 receptor on the cells or by binding directly to the spike protein.
The research team is currently working toward obtaining permission to conduct a clinical trial to evaluate whether the approach is safe and effective when tested in people infected with SARS-CoV-2.(IANS/PR)
(Keywords: Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 virus, chewing gum)
After the release of HUH Token’s White Paper and the buzz around the soon-to-be launching cryptocurrency, it’s no wonder that the crypto world is wondering whether or not Shiba Inu’s year of meme coin supremacy is coming to an end.
Shiba Inu rose to crypto fame in the august of 2020 and just a little over a year from that point, where Shiba Inu knocked Dogecoin off top dog spot… it appears that HUH Token could be set to take the cryptocurrency world by storm on its launch: Monday December 6th. And with it the possible end of Shiba Inu’s reign as the supreme meme coin.
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Though, you might be wondering how it is that HUH Token could do that, possibly end Shiba Inu’s year of the dog? Although it seems, that a glimpse at HUH Token’s White Paper, a listen to the shouts of the cryptocurrency fanatics and a read of this article could answer that for you.
Shiba Inu Really Passing on the Torch?
Over the past year, Shiba Inu performed remarkably well on the cryptocurrency market after using the power of the media and its influence to take Dogecoin off the top spot.
Though it seems, that with buzz around the unique cryptocurrency, HUH Token, could be prized to take Shiba Inu from that top spot and there is a plethora of reasons why.
HUH Token’s White Paper release demonstrated a detailed explanation of HUH Token’s aims, goals, technology and what lies at their golden centre- HUH Token Holders, HUH Nation and as HUH Token grows the MetHUH.
This is what could set Shiba Inu and HUH Token lightyears apart… HUH Token’s revolutionary prospects.
HUH Token intend to be a decentralised metaverse where everyone gains from whatever data they’ve generated and that means that HUH Token have discovered what the currency of influence is and that is you and HUH.
Though the two-days-till launch cryptocurrency, HUH Token, doesn’t stop there, in fact, the White Paper outlines how HUH Token could be one of, if not the only, safer cryptocurrency on the crypto market today.
This would be achieved by harnessing HUH Token’s multichain technology that uses Ethereum and Binance blockchains, yield generating contracts (Binance Smart Contract) and an always-open bug bounty.
These steps help to bring a level of safety to HUH Token holders and their growing HUH Nation as a whole… as well as autonomising HUH Token holders in the process, where it appears that individuality is supported by HUH Token.
Though it seems that Shiba Inu might still have some years in it yet, but HUH Token seem to be able to hold their own in a dog fight to the top.
The Future is Utimeme
As mentioned above HUH Token enjoy the essence of duality, because together we are stronger… for that reason HUH Token’s creators envisioned and realised the function and technology of a utimeme cryptocurrency, that has the power and influence of a meme coin but the usability of a utility coin and this where HUH Token is created.
This alone could see Shiba Inu’s year of the dog come to an end, but it’s always advised to do your own research before becoming a holder in any cryptocurrency.
This being said, there are two days left before HUH Token’s Monday December 6th launch and there might not be that much time left for you to benefit from HUH Token’s presale and receive a 35% bonus on top of $1000 deposit.
I for one can’t wait for HUH Token’s launch as it feels like something great is about to happen for the cryptocurrency world.
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(Disclaimer: This article is sponsored and includes some commercial links.)
Investing in the cryptocurrency business is one of the most intelligent choices one can make in the modern-day. In 2021, the sector exhibited its promise, with cryptocurrencies like Ethereum (ETH), Bitcoin (BTC) and Shiba Inu (SHIB) seeing optimistic growth and creating numerous billionaire investors. The market is still in its infancy, and there is an impossible number of exciting cryptocurrencies available for investment. HUH Token, for instance, is one of these, and it is releasing today!
Comprehending a cryptocurrency’s most recent release helps to compare it to previous accomplishments. HUH Token (HUH), Cardano (ADA) and Solana (SOL) are three cryptocurrencies that every crypto trader should be familiar with. These are coins with high usefulness and a robust growth plan. Cardano and Solana are two growing blockchain technologies in the crypto world.
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The two blockchains address Ethereum’s and Bitcoin’s scalability, security, and transaction costs problems. At present, Cardano and Solana both have higher throughput than Ethereum.
Cardano is more experienced than Solana, having launched in 2017 and doing tremendous things. This is one of the reasons why ADA has done so well. Similarly, to Solana, the Cardano platform circumvents the constraints mentioned earlier with a proof-of-Stake consensus method instead of proof-of-work. The success of the Cardano and Solana blockchains contributes to the ever-increasing demand for their respective coins.
Cardano and Solana have already released their 2022 roadmaps, sparking the crypto community’s curiosity. Demand for Cardano and Solana will increase significantly in 2022 due to substantial advancements.
Investors should, however, put a more considerable premium on HUH Token. When the HUH Token is released, it will go to the moon. It is a token designed to reward investors by just holding tokens. HUH Token is based on a multi-chain system that has already made great efforts to develop a decentralised financial system via a proprietary referral system.
Soon to be published for the HUH Tokens ecosystem are significant projects such as metHUH, a social network that will revolutionise social media’s world via tokenised sentiment analysis. HUH Token is an excellent gift for Christmas due to its incentive structure, which benefits holders based on the percentage of their holdings. For example, if a holder owns 0.1% of the supply, they will get 0.1% of the HUH prize holdings.
This ensures that all HUH token holders are fairly compensated for their investment in the social network MetHUH. The number of HUH tokens that will be displayed is determined by the sum of all HUH network buy and sell transactions.
HUH has given Elon Musk’s Foundation 20% of its total token supply to utilise for its primary goals of the Development of safe artificial intelligence to assist mankind, science and engineering education, paediatric research, human space exploration research and advocacy and, the development of safe artificial intelligence to assist mankind, and renewable energy research and advocacy.
HUH is aware that this is a marketing strategy; they are open about it; nonetheless, regardless of the outcome, the ultimate purpose is to serve society and individuals on a deeply altruistic level. HUH anticipates Elon’s reaction with bated breath.
Crypto investors looking to kick off 2022 positively would be wise to choose HUH Token as a holiday present. This cryptocurrency has immense potential because of its usability and well-thought-out growth plan, as described in their newly published white paper.
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(Disclaimer: This article is sponsored and includes some commercial links.)