Wednesday September 19, 2018

Influencer of Language Skills in Kids Decoded

For comparing the languages, the basic word list and phonemic inventory they used reflect the vocabulary system and sound system in a language, respectively

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For countries like India, where there is strong social pressure to become parents, Deaton and Stone say their argument does not apply. Pixabay
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Ever wondered which language of the two — maternal or paternal — has a stronger influence on your child? According to a study, while vocabulary is influenced by the father, the understanding of sounds is derived from the mother.

Mother tongue hypothesis refers to the language usage that follows matrilineal inheritance.

Father tongue hypothesis, on the other hand, refers to the paternal lines that dominate the local language in an already populated region, which was proposed based on genetic and anthropological researches.

The researchers found that in Indo-European populations, the paternal lineages (Y-chromosome) were correlated to the vocabulary (lexicon) of their languages while the maternal lineages were associated with their pronunciations (phoneme).

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For comparing the languages, the basic word list and phonemic inventory they used reflect the vocabulary system and sound system in a language, respectively. Pixabay

The unbalanced correlation between genetics and linguistics can be explained by male-dominant population contact, and the strategy of language learning by local females which is similar to the second language acquisition, said lead author Menghan Zhang from the Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania, US.

For the study, published in the journal National Science Review, the team explored the genetic-linguistic relationship of 34 populations speaking different Indo-European (IE) languages.

They assembled compositions of the Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups or paragroups from these IE populations, which reflect paternal and maternal lines, respectively.

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These haplogroups or paragroups were defined using stable mutations so that they were all already formed in the Paleolithic Age (over 10,000 years ago).

For comparing the languages, the basic word list and phonemic inventory they used reflect the vocabulary system and sound system in a language, respectively. (IANS)

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Exposure to Certain Disinfectants Can Cause Obesity in Kids: Research

The use of eco-friendly products may be linked to healthier overall maternal lifestyles and eating habits.

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Disinfectants
How common household cleaners could make kids overweight. Flickr

Early life exposure to certain disinfectants used at home could be making children overweight by altering the composition of their gut bacteria, suggests new research.

Babies living in households that used eco-friendly cleaners had different microbiota and were less likely to be overweight as toddlers, showed the findings published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

For the study, the researchers analysed the gut flora of 757 infants from the general population at age 3-4 months and weight at ages 1 and 3 years, looking at exposure to disinfectants, detergents and eco-friendly products used in the home.

Disinfectants
Mother’s Lifestyle Choices Linked to Obesity Risk in Adolescents. Pixabay

The researchers looked at data from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort on microbes in infant fecal matter. They used World Health Organization growth charts for body mass index (BMI) scores.

Associations with altered gut flora in babies 3-4 months old were strongest for frequent use of household disinfectants such as multi-surface cleaners, which showed lower levels of Haemophilus and Clostridium bacteria but higher levels of Lachnospiraceae.

The researchers also observed an increase in Lachnospiraceae bacteria with more frequent cleaning with disinfectants.

They, however, did not find the same association with detergents or eco-friendly cleaners.

“We found that infants living in households with disinfectants being used at least weekly were twice as likely to have higher levels of the gut microbes Lachnospiraceae at age 3-4 months,” said Anita Kozyrskyj, Professor at the University of Alberta in Canada.

Disinfectants
The researchers looked at data from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort on microbes in infant fecal matter. Flcikr

“When they were 3 years old, their body mass index was higher than children not exposed to heavy home use of disinfectants as an infant,” Kozyrskyj said.

“Those infants growing up in households with heavy use of eco cleaners had much lower levels of the gut microbes Enterobacteriaceae,” she said.

Also Read: Asthma Ups The Chance of Obesity: Study

Kozyrskyj suggests that the use of eco-friendly products may be linked to healthier overall maternal lifestyles and eating habits, contributing in turn to the healthier gut microbiomes and weight of their infants. (IANS)