Wednesday April 1, 2020

Insulin Has Potential To Treat Chronic Bowel Inflammation

Based on the positive results, the researchers will now test the treatment in clinical trials on humans

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Insulin
Insulin can help treat chronic bowel inflammation. Pixabay

Insulin, which plays a key role in managing blood sugar, also has potential against colitis — a chronic bowel inflammation, finds a study.

The study, conducted on mice, showed that chronic bowel inflammation can be treated effectively by injecting insulin into the rectum.

Insulin works because it activates a gene inside the bowel cells, which has an antioxidant effect and thus may be able to protect the bowel cells from inflammation.

“Existing treatments attack the bowel’s immune system, dampening it, instead our method strengthens the bowel cells’ own defence. It appears to work equally well, and it can probably be used in combination with existing treatments,” said Jorgen Olsen, Professor at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.

For the study, published in the scientific Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, the team examined the effect of the treatment in a series of tests on mice with chronic colitis of the type Colitis Ulcerosa.

Insulin
Representational image. Pixabay

The cause of these bowel disorders is unknown but they cause patients great discomfort and can involve bloody diarrhoea, anaemia, stomach ache and weight loss.

The researchers have studied the effect of the insulin treatment in various ways.

The team found that treatment with insulin led to a 50 per cent drop in the amount of inflammation, compared to the saltwater control treatment.

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Further, the mice also lost 15-20 per cent less weight than the control group and importantly, they gained weight 50 per cent faster, following the treatment.

Based on the positive results, the researchers will now test the treatment in clinical trials on humans. (IANS)

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Researchers Develop Non-Fibrillating Form of Human Insulin to Treat Diabetes

Typically, the chemical modification of insulin causes structural destabilisation and inactivation

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Diabetes
The discovery of glycoinsulin presents a promising solution for patients of diabetes. Pixabay

 In a promising discovery that could improve the clinical delivery of insulin for people living with diabetes, researchers have developed a non-fibrillating form of human insulin.

Using a novel glycosylation technique, the research team from the Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health in Australia, has successfully synthesised an insulin analogue called glycoinsulin that demonstrates the same glucose-lowering effects as native insulin in preclinical studies without fibril formation.

The study, published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, said that fibrils can arise when insulin compounds aggregate together forming clumps.

For people with diabetes who rely on pump infusions to administer insulin, fibrils pose serious risk in blocking the delivery of insulin which can potentially lead to life threatening under-dosing, it added.

The discovery of glycoinsulin presents a promising solution for patients.

“Not only did our research demonstrate that glycoinsulin does not form fibrils, even at high temperature and concentration, but also that it is more stable in human serum than native insulin,” said study researcher Akhter Hossain.

“Together, these findings could position glycoinsulin as an excellent candidate for use in insulin pumps and a way to improve the shelf life of insulin products,” Hossain added. “We now hope to streamline the manufacturing process for glycoinsulin so this compound can be further investigated in larger, clinical studies,” he added.

Over 25,000 people in Australia and 350,000 people in the US use insulin pumps as part of their diabetes management. In what can cause significant patient burden and medicine wastage, insulin pump infusion sets are required to be replaced every 24-72 hours to mitigate the occurrence of fibrils.

Diabetes
In a promising discovery that could improve the clinical delivery of insulin for people living with diabetes, researchers have developed a non-fibrillating form of human insulin. Pixabay

Critical to the success of the study was the engineering of an insulin-sugar complex from egg yolks using a method jointly developed by collaborators, Associate Professor Ryo Okamoto and Professor Yasuhiro Kajihara, from Osaka University, Japan.

“Typically, the chemical modification of insulin causes structural destabilisation and inactivation, but we were able to successfully synthesise glycoinsulin in a way that retains its insulin-like helical structure,” said study co-author John Wade.

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“The result is an almost fully active insulin analogue which has demonstrated near-native binding to insulin receptors in both lab and animal studies,” Wade added. (IANS)