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ISRO Chairman K.Sivan said the space agency is looking at green propulsion through hydrogen peroxide in its rocket that would take Indians into space under its 'Gaganyaan' mission.

The Indian government, while encouraging the private players to play a good part in the space sector with policy reforms, will continue to focus on research and development (R&D) on green fuel, robotic space exploration, and reusable rockets state the draft National Space Transportation Policy.

The draft policy states that focused research is essential on new propulsion systems based on semi-cryogenic, liquid oxygen-methane, and green propellants. The Department of Space (DOS) under the Government of India has recently come out with its draft National Space Transportation Policy.

Its space arm -- Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)-- is working on green fuel (for rockets and satellites), human space missions, and others. Similarly, private rocket makers are also for green fuel. The DOS Secretary and ISRO Chairman K.Sivan said the space agency is looking at green propulsion through hydrogen peroxide in its rocket that would take Indians into space under its 'Gaganyaan' mission. ISRO is also looking at rocket engines powered by hydrogen peroxide as a mono-propellant or as a bi-propellant along with ethanol.

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ISRO The Crew Escape System (CES) lifting off from the launch pad, during a test conducted by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).Wikimedia Commons


The Indian space agency is also developing another green fuel -- LOX/Methane -- liquid oxygen as oxidizer and methane as fuel. Sivan had told IANS that the test results were good for LOX/Methane engines. The LOX/Methane propellant has advantages in terms of specific impulse, storability, low toxicity, and cost. According to Sivan, the space agency is looking to replace its existing liquid engine fuels with green fuel-powered ones.

ISRO has also developed ISROSENE, which is a rocket-grade version of kerosene as an alternative to conventional hydrazine rocket fuel. Queried about the green option for its solid fuel-fired engines, Sivan had said the work towards this end is also progressing well. As regards powering the satellites, ISRO is working towards lightweight electrical propulsion in place of chemical fuel. The private rocket makers are also moving towards greener fuel.

"We are shifting to a greener cryogenic fuel (LNG) for our rocket's upper stage. We already manufactured an engine with this fuel and are in the process of testing. And this greener fuel will also fuel all our future vehicles," Skyroot Aerospace's Co-Founder and CEO Pawan Kumar Chandana told IANS.

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ISRO Vyommitra (Space friend), ISRO.Wikimedia Commons


As regards other stages/engines Chandana said: "We will go with solid fuel as it's low cost and gives large thrust. The eventual plan is to shift to greener fuels for our future vehicles." According to the draft policy, the DOS needs to work towards advanced space transportation capabilities including new propulsion systems, reusability as well as heavy lift capabilities to undertake robotic/human space exploration.

To enable missions like human spaceflight, robotic space exploration, the draft policy states, the current capabilities of DOS/ISRO have to be significantly enhanced towards heavy lift/super heavy lift and reusable space transportation systems along with associated infrastructure, to enable access to low earth orbit and beyond.

According to the policy, research should also be on the development of more powerful rocket stages employing clustered engines that require a series of tests and the establishment of associated test facilities towards the validation and qualification of these systems. These developments may require new materials along with state-of-art design and manufacturing paradigms like additive manufacturing, which need to be explored through prototype validation and relevant facility establishment, the draft policy states. (IANS/KB)


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The aim of the book is to teach children that families can exist in different forms, and show them how to accept the diversity in family backgrounds.

By Siddhi Jain

Delhi-based author Pritisha Borthakur is set to release her new book, 'Puhor and Niyor's Mural of Family Stories'. The 1,404-word children's book was put together to address a new kind of societal debacle in the family system. The author says the aim is to teach children that families can exist in different forms, and show them how to accept the diversity in family backgrounds.

The author who named the book after her twin sons -- Puhor and Niyor -- is a parent who has seen and heard the tales of ridicule and discrimination suffered by many in India and beyond. She says the book is an artistic illustration for kids that details how different families can live and coexist. Whether it's children with two dads or two moms, children with a single dad or single mom, and even multiracial family units, Borthakur's book teaches love, understanding, and compassion towards unconventional families.

Beyond race, gender, color, and ethnicity which have formed the bases for discrimination since the beginning of time, this book aims to bring to light a largely ignored issue. For so long, single parents have been treated like a taboo without any attempt to understand their situations; no one really cares how or why one's marriage ended but just wants to treat single parents as villains simply for choosing happiness and loving their children.

Homosexual parents, a relatively new family system, is another form that has suffered hate and discrimination for many years. Pritisha emphasizes the need to understand that diversity in people and family is what makes the world beautiful and colourful. 'Puhor and Niyor's Mural of Family Stories' is a firm but compassionate statement against all forms of discrimination on the bases of sexual identity, gender, race, and even differences in background

four children standing on dirt during daytime 'Puhor and Niyor's Mural of Family Stories' is a firm but compassionate statement against all forms of discrimination on the bases of sexual identity, gender, race and even differences in background. | Photo by Ben Wicks on Unsplash


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