Saturday November 25, 2017

‘Khatna’ or Female Genital Mutilation : A barbarism allowed in the name of Religion and Tradition

Is Female Genital Mutilation a religious practice or a tradition to be followed or just insane cruelty?

6
1280
Source: Wikimedia Commons

When I got it done for my daughter, I did it because it was  a custom to be followed“ said Sophie Johari to a newspaper. Aarefa Johari (29), journalist with Scroll.in and co-founder of SAHIYO, an organisation against FGM, was the unfortunate child of 7 years who had to go through the traumatic procedure of ‘khatna’. Her mother regrets not standing up for her daughter then and now supports her campaign on Facebook.

What is Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)?

According to WHO, Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Also according to their report more than 200 million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries and is mostly carried out on young girls between infancy and age 15.

Why is it practised?

In her book ‘The Hidden Face of Eve’, Nawal El-Saadawi, a Muslim victim of infibulation(a type of circumcision in which external genitalia is removed and the opening is sewn for bodily discharges) says,” Behind circumcision lies the belief that, by removing parts of girls’ external genitals organs, sexual desire is minimized. This permits a female who has reached the dangerous age of puberty and adolescence to protect her virginity and therefore her honor, with greater ease. Female circumcision is meant to preserve the chastity of young girls by reducing their desire for sexual intercourse.”

Debates on Male Circumcision vs. Female Genital Mutilation

Male circumcision has been a reality for hundreds of years in the name of tradition and religion for many Jewish and Islamic families. It has been a topic a global discussion that since circumcision is an unnecessary invasive surgery performed on un-consenting children, why is female genital mutilation criticized and male circumcision condoned.  Aren’t both supposed to be equally wrong? Why is one illegal while the other is not?

The biggest difference between male and female circumcision is the amount of tissue that is being removed in the process along with the conditions in which the process is being carried out. Mostly in male circumcision, part or all of his foreskin is removed or the tissue(frenulum) connecting the foreskin to the penis is removed whereas in FGM, entire clitoris maybe removed. Circumcision is usually carried out by or in presence of a medical practitioner whereas FGM is an undercover activity performed in an unhygienic manner by untrained midwives. But this generalization may not be true in every case since incidents of deadly male circumcisions have been reported.

Knives used for FGM: Wikimedia Commons
Knives used for FGM: Wikimedia Commons

Some sociologists and ethicist even disagree with the argument of attributing FGM with patriarchy and say it over- simplifies the social and cultural causes of the process. Throughout much of Africa, it is practiced around puberty for both boys and girls alike.

 Where is FGM practised?

Female Genital Mutilation is most prevalent in Africa, Egypt being the country with the highest number of cases. It is also practised in some parts of Middle East and Asia. In India, the practice is followed among the Dawoodi Bohra community, based primarily in states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. Bhendi bazaar district in Mumbai is where the major Bohra Muslim population lives.

Who are Bohra Muslims?

Bohra is a Gujarati-speaking caste originated from Kutch area of India. These were predominantly a business community, some of whom converted to Islam. There was a dispute in leadership in the 16thcentury AD and the ones who chose to accept Dawood ibn Qutubshah Burhanudeen as their leader came to be known as Dawoodi Bohras. Their spiritual leader is called as ‘Syedna’. The community is well reputed for being progressive traders and wealthy. The current Syedna has close ties with Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

The spokesperson of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin has been quoted “Bohra women should understand that our religion advocates the procedure and they should follow it without any argument” on the issue of FGM. As described by a previous article, even the current Syedna in a sermon at the Saifee Mosque in Bhendi Bazaar said “This act has to happen! If it is a man, it can be openly done but if it is a woman, it has to be done discreetly”. He did not explicitly mention the act of FGM and left his words open to interpretation.

In India many campaigns are being carried out online and on the grounds to put an end to this barbaric practice. One such effort is undertaken by Masooma Ranalvi and Aarefa Johari in the form of an online petition to Smt. Maneka Gandhi, Minister of Women and Child Development. More about their efforts can be read here.

You can reach the author @ShivangiTripati

6 COMMENTS

  1. Cutting male and female genitals are similar. 1) They are unnecessary, extremely painful, and traumatic. 2) They can have adverse sexual and psychological effects. 3) They are generally done by force on children. 4) They are generally supported by local medical doctors. 5) Pertinent biological facts are not generally known where procedures are practiced. 6) They are defended with reasons such as tradition, religion, aesthetics, cleanliness, and health. 7) The rationale has currently or historically been connected to controlling sexual pleasure. 8) They are often believed to have no effect on normal sexual functioning. 9) They are generally accepted and supported by those who have been subjected to them. 10) Those who are cut have a compulsion to repeat their trauma on their children. 11) The choice may be motivated by underlying psychosexual reasons. 12) Critical public discussion is generally taboo where the procedures are practiced. 13) They can result in serious complications that can lead to death. 14) The adverse effects are hidden by repression and denial. 15) Dozens of potentially harmful physiological, emotional, behavioral, sexual, and social effects on individuals and societies have never been studied. 16) On a qualitative level, cutting the genitals of male and female children are the same. The harm starts with the first cut, any cut. 17) The decision is generally controlled by men though women may be supportive.18) They violate the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. 19) They generally exist together. 20) To stop one, we must stop both. Then we may better develop toward our individual and social potential. May courage overcome conformity.

    • I’m preaching to the choir for a while now: Girls are not off the hook as long as we throw boys under the bus. It’s not difficult, isn’t it?

    • It depends on the conditions in which the process takes place. Although doctors say that the adverse impacts of FGM, if carried out in its most intense forms, is far more than circumcision.

  2. Just to minimize the sexual desires of a female one will do female genital mutilation ? When will people grow up 🙁 For all those males who consider themselves as a superior breed over the female ones, change your mindset !! One has no right to bound other person’s desire. This is totally ridiculous.

  3. The WHO recommends considering circumcision as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program in areas with high rates of HIV. Circumcision in general is associated with reduced rates of cancer causing forms of HPV and risk of both UTIs and cancer of the penis. Risks rates are usually very very low and only higher when the procedure is performed by an inexperienced operator, in unsterile conditions, or when the child is at an older age. Circumcision does NOT appear to have a negative impact on sexual function by multiple studies. Most reliable studies show there are benefits and negative effects are rare.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Next Story

Mosque Attacked in Egypt: 235 People Killed by Islamic Terrorists

Islamic militants fired on people both inside and outside the Rawda mosque in the volatile northern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt

0
12

Egyptian security officials, quoted by state-run media, say 235 people have been killed by suspected militants in an attack on a packed mosque Friday in the volatile northern Sinai Peninsula.

Frightened residents fled the center of the town of Bir al Abed, after Islamic militants fired on people both inside and outside the Rawda mosque. Scores of bodies were strewn across the mosque’s carpeted floor.

A man claiming to have been inside the mosque during the attack told Arab media that militants in four-wheel drive vehicles opened fire inside the house of worship following an explosion.

Eyewitnesses also say the militants fired on ambulances as emergency personnel tried to evacuate the wounded to hospitals in nearby Arish. Egyptian media reported that several government targets also were attacked inside the town.

In Egypt, a Mosque attacked.
Egyptians gather outside the Rawda mosque, roughly 40 kilometers west of the North Sinai capital of El-Arish, following a gun and bombing attack, on Nov. 24, 2017. VOA

Next Story

Bride Sale in India: Buy A Wife Policy

0
59
Human Trafficking
Bride Slavery in India: Abhishek Suresh

Bride Sale: Story of transformation of Indian Bride into Slave Bride

Samridhi Nain

Bride Sale in India seems to be trending in Haryana, a state with the lowest sex ratio, even marriage continues to be a way of exploitation as Indian brides for marriage are purchased at cattle rate and trafficked into the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab.
These ‘brides’ are imported from poverty-stricken states like Jharkhand, Bihar, Orrisa, West Bengal & Assam, where the traffickers either take advantage of the family’s poverty or abduct the young girls varying anywhere between the ages of 15 and 30, according to 2013 National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).
The bride sale practice has been completely normal in the northern states due to the acute shortage of girls because of practices like sex selection and female foeticide. But if the reports are to be believed then even if not a single case of female foeticide takes place in Haryana, it would still take 50 years to get the numbers back to normal from India’s sex ratio today. However, the problem remains as locals & Khap leaders keep refusing to accept the facts at hand. Some believe it is the education of women that is the root problem because they want to marry a man who is also well-educated, whereas some believe that there has always been a shortage of girls but before where one woman would take care of five brothers, now, it requires five separate women to do the same.
As Haryana keeps preferring the male child and that male child grows up to prefer a bride, the best solution available at hand remains of these women who are bought at a price varying on their age, beauty & virginity and once bought, they are turned into a slave bride. Once married, these women can be resold as they are not viewed as a respected member but a commodity as they are not considered to be entitled to any inheritance by the family.
Human Trafficking to Bride Sale
Stencil of Missing Girls Project, Wikimedia Commons
A field study, covering 92 villages of Mahendragarh, Sirsa, Karnal, Sonipat & Mewat districts had been conducted on the impact of the sex ratio on marriage which covered over 10,000 households and found that 9,000 married women were bought from other states. The study was conducted by NGO Drishti Stree Adhyayan Prabodhan Kendra but the families kept denying of any exchange of money for the bride.
In 2016, the ministry of women and child development came up with India’s first comprehensive anti-trafficking laws under ‘Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection & Rehabilitation) Bill, 2016 but the bill faces many challenges and is believed to not achieve its objectives of preventing trafficking & providing protection & rehabilitation to trafficked victims. Activists also believe that the bill will be able to do very little to stop the bride sale.
With such haunting demographics at hand, the hope still remains that sooner or later, the government might realize the need for stringent implementation of the rules & regulations to stop the violation of these young women at the hands of sex traffickers and quell this ‘Buy A Bride’ policy.
-Samridhi is a student of Philosophy Hons. at the University of Delhi.

Next Story

Dalai Lama says that India and China have great potential

The spiritual leader feels that both the countries are doing compassionate works

0
38
Dalai Lama talks about India and China
Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai says that India and China can work together. VOA

New Delhi, Nov 19

Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama on Sunday said India and China have “great potential” and they could work together at a “practical level”.

“I think, a great potential… India and China combined are doing more compassionate work… At a practical level also. Imagine two billion people working together,” he told reporters here after inaugurating Smile Foundation’s initiative, The World of Children.

The spiritual leader, who has lived in India in self-imposed exile since 1959, said neither country had the “ability to destroy the other”.

“Whether you like it or not, you have to live side by side,” he said.

Underlining the ancient spiritual connection between the two countries, he said Chinese Buddhist Hsuan Tsang visited Nalanda (now in Bihar) and brought Nalanda Buddhist traditions to China.

“All thinkers of Nalanda are Indian. So Nalanda’s tradition is India’s tradition,” he said.

The Nalanda traditions had turned Tibetans, who were warriors, into more compassionate, peaceful and non-violent nation, he said.

“So sometimes in Delhi, teasing my Indian friend, (I say) if Tibet still remained in the previous way of life, like Mongols, Chinese invasion may not have taken place,” the Dalai Lama said in a lighter vein.

He said nobody in the world wanted violence but it was happening “because our minds are dominated by destructive emotions due to short-sightedness”.

“Nobody wants problems. Yet, many problems are our own creation.”

The Dalai Lama said the existing modern education was oriented to material values. India can take lead in improving the education system by combining modern education with ancient knowledge, he said. (IANS)