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Multiple myeloma is a complex disease. It is a type of blood cancer that is rare, and males are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than females. It is also termed Kahler’s disease. Plasma cells which are a type of white blood cells produce antibodies that fight infections in our body.
Due to multiple myeloma, these plasma cells start multiplying in an abnormal way. In multiple myeloma, cancerous plasma cells cumulate in the bone marrow and crowd out the healthy blood cells in our bones. The cancer cells prevent the production of helpful antibodies and instead, produce abnormal proteins that often lead to low blood counts, impairing the body’s ability to fight off infection.
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Generally, the disease doesn’t show symptoms until it has advanced, so diagnosing multiple myeloma is truly difficult. The specific signs, age of onset, and rate of development of this disease differ from patient to patient. Multiple myeloma affects several parts of our body. As multiple myeloma gets worse, the plasma cells spill out of our bone marrow and while it gets spread, it damages more organs.
Some of the symptoms of multiple myeloma may include bone pain, easily broken bones, frequent infections, upset stomach, fevers, excessive thirst, increased urination, fatigue, nausea, weight loss, weakness or numbness in arms and legs, kidney problems, constipation, etc.
Though the exact cause of this disease is yet to be discovered, there are multiple risk factors that include: Increasing age, especially when the age is more than 65 years, Male sex, Black race, Genetic history, Obesity, Being exposed to radiation, Being exposed to chemicals used in rubber manufacturing, woodworking, or firefighting, or in herbicides.
Some changes in our blood cells can show a red flag towards multiple myeloma. The presence of more than the required amount of calcium in our blood, a smaller number of red blood cells, in spite of the high level of total protein, specifically lacking in the protein called Albumin. Doctors may suggest a complete blood count (CBC) and along with it, checking the creatinine level in the blood helps to identify if the kidneys are working properly. Sometimes, doctors recommend bone marrow and biopsy.
There’s no cure to multiple myeloma, but with proper treatment, the progress of the disease can be slowed down, and sometimes the symptoms might disappear. The treatment of multiple myeloma depends on the overall health condition of the patient and the stage of the disease. The treatment helps in eradicating myeloma cells, control tumor growth, reduce pain, and allow patients to live an active life. Generally, the treatment of multiple myeloma involves chemotherapy which helps to reduce the number of abnormal plasma cells, some bone modifying drugs are prescribed to strengthen the bone and reduce bone pain and the risk of fractures. In some cases, a stem cell transplant is suggested. Some patients may undergo radiation therapy which destroys cancer cells and reduces bone masses that may develop.
Along with the treatment, some of the necessary regular habits need to be followed to stay active. These habits include: maintaining a healthy diet in consultation with a dietician, doing regular exercises, taking enough rest, and being occupied with things that one enjoys. (IANS/SP)
Canadian researchers have discovered an overlooked gene that plays a major role in the development of antibodies, which help the immune system recognize and fight viruses including SARS-CoV-2, bacteria and other causes of infectious disease. The gene -- FAM72A -- facilitates production of high-quality antibodies by enabling the effect of an enzyme called AID (for Activation-Induced Deaminase), the researchers showed.
Immunologists have known for two decades that AID is essential to produce antibodies capable of clearing infections, but the full mechanism of its effect has remained unknown. "Our findings answer the long-standing question of how AID does its work," said Alberto Martin, a professor of immunology at the University of Toronto's Temerty Faculty of Medicine. "FAM72A helps AID to promote mutations in antibody genes that are essential for the development of effective antibodies," he added.
Genetic mutations that lead to lasting changes in DNA occur through a process called mutagenesis. | Pixabay
Genetic mutations that lead to lasting changes in DNA occur through a process called mutagenesis. In the context of antibody development, mutagenesis unfolds largely through the AID-driven mechanisms called somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination -- both of which help antibodies gain the diversity and potency they need to counter a wide range of pathogens.
The results published in the journal Nature will help researchers better understand antibody development broadly, but they also have implications for cancer. Uncontrolled mutagenesis in B cells that produce antibodies is linked to B cell lymphoma, and FAM72A is present at very high levels in other cancers such as gastrointestinal, breast, lung, liver and ovarian cancers.
"Our data show that high levels of FAM72A promote mutations in antibody genes, so increased levels of FAM72A could spur cancer development, progression or drug resistance by increasing mutagenesis,a Martin said. Martin's team is now exploring those possibilities. Intriguingly, unlike other mammals, humans have four gene versions of FAM72A and their roles in cancer and antibody production are still unknown. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: researchers, cancer, mutagenesis, antibody, development, antibodies, canada, COVID
Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL), a subsidiary of Coal India will set up a 50 megawatt (MW) solar power plant in Odisha's Sambalpur at a total cost of Rs 301.92 crore, moving steadily towards its goal to achieve carbon neutrality by 2024. MCL has placed a turnkey order to set-up a 50 MW solar power plant with a Chennai-based firm M/s Hild Energy Ltd, which will establish this green energy project within a timeline of 10 months, the MCL said in a statement on Saturday.
This solar plant would cater to the captive power requirement of MCL. The Central PSU had successfully set-up a 2MW solar power plant in Sambalpur in 2014. The company said it has pledged a target of installing 182 MW of solar power by 2024 in order to become a net zero energy company, aligning itself to use cleaner forms of energy for coal production.
The company said it has pledged a target of installing 182 MW of solar power by 2024. | Photo by Mariana Proença on Unsplash
This 50 MW solar power project will reduce CO2 emission by 91,020 tonnes per annum and carbon offsets of around 24,824 tonnes per annum, claimed the MCL. MCL is the leading production subsidiary of Coal India, having mining operations in Angul, Jharsuguda and Sundargarh districts of Odisha. Having achieved the highest ever capital expenditure of Rs 2,419 crore in the financial year 2020-21, the company has coal production and dispatch targets of 163 million tonnes and 182 million tonnes, respectively.
MCL was the coal mining company to introduce environment-friendly surface miner technology, which contributes over 95 per cent in coal production. As another environment-friendly initiative, the company has successfully introduced vertical rippers for blast-less over-burden removal in Hingula and Kaniha opencast projects. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: solar plant, carbon neutrality, Odisha, Sambalpur, Coal India, subsidiary, Mahanadi Coalfields Limited, solar energy
As the nation celebrated the 114th birth anniversary of his father - renowned poet Harivansh Rai Bachchan - megastar Amitabh Bachchan remembered his dad as he penned a heartfelt note for him. The actor took to his blog where he poured his heart out and also shared an unseen photo with his father. The image in question is from Big B's wedding in 1973, where the two are caught in a sweet moment as they look at each other.
Amitabh Bachchan wrote on his blog,
"My Father , my all .. November 27th his birth in the year 1907 .. Which makes it his 114th Anniversary .. He is in the heavens, with my Mother and they celebrate .. as do we , in thought word and deed .. (sic). But first."
He then posted the picture followed by elaborate paragraphs. The megastar wrote,
"Those rare moments when one would find himself rushing against the winds to prevent the distance between us and to close it down as soon as it can be. The day of my wedding and his expression of fulfilment to not just be in congratulation but instead to be in the face of a belief, a chime, an ultimate season of love and great passion, of the quarries of the fears and conditionings of these deprived gym routines kart ..(sic)". "This could have been unknown for long facilitating years, to give not expected versions and lastly large scale informations of the insides ; but as time passed by, as does now , they explained purposely, the values of education and similarity .. Be in peace and love .. (sic)",
the veteran actor concluded his note. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Amitabh Bachchan, Harivansh Rai Bachchan, actor, blog, birth anniversary, 114th birthday