Tuesday November 20, 2018

A Landmark Study Links Herpes 6 and 7 with Alzheimer’s Disease

The findings also showed multiple points of overlap between virus-host interactions and genes associated with Alzheimer's risk

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For the study, published in the journal Nature, the team engineered a hydrogel that can swell those lymphatic vessels.
For the study, published in the journal Nature, the team engineered a hydrogel that can swell those lymphatic vessels. (IANS)
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Scientists have found up to two times higher level of human herpes virus among people with Alzheimer’s disease, suggesting the potential role of the viruses in the development of the progressive brain disorder.

Herpes virus causes contagious sores, most often around the mouth or on the genitals.

The study found unusually increased level of human herpesvirus named human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7 ) in the brains of the people with Alzheimer’s than those without the disorder.

“The hypothesis that viruses play a part in brain disease is not new, but this is the first study to provide strong evidence,” said Richard J. Hodes, Director from the US National Institutes of Health.

“Our work identified specific biological networks that offer new testable hypotheses regarding the role of microbial defense and innate immune function in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s,” said Joel Dudley from the Institute for Next Generation Healthcare at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

alzheimers
Patient of Alzheimer’s. Pixabay

The findings also showed multiple points of overlap between virus-host interactions and genes associated with Alzheimer’s risk. Multiple viruses impact the biology of Alzheimer’s disease across domains such as DNA, RNA and proteins.

“If it becomes evident that specific viral species directly contribute to an individual’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s or their rate of progression once diagnosed, then this would offer a new conceptual framework for understanding the emergence and evolution of Alzheimer’s at individual, as well as population, levels,” Dudley explained.

In the study, published in the journal Neuron, the team initially performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions in more than 600 samples of postmortem tissue from people with and without Alzheimer’s to quantify which genes were present in the brain, and whether any were associated with the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s.

Also Read: Parkinson’s Identified Gene to Combat Alzheimer’s

Using different computational approaches, the team uncovered a complex network of unexpected associations, linking specific viruses with different aspects of Alzheimer’s biology.

They examined the influence of each virus on specific genes and proteins in brain cells, and identified associations between specific viruses and amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and clinical dementia severity.

Further, they incorporated 800, RNA sequencing samples and observed a persistent increase of HHV-6A and HHV-7 in samples from individuals with Alzheimer’s. (IANS)

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Managing Cholesterol Might Help To Reduce Alzheimer’s Risk

These included several points within the CELF1/MTCH2/SPI1 region on chromosome 11 that previously had been linked to the immune system

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Can managing cholesterol reduce Alzheimer's risk? Read it out here. Pixabay

Managing cholesterol might help reduce Alzheimer’s risk, says researchers, including one of Indian-origin, who identified a genetic link between the progressive brain disorder and heart disease.

Examining DNA from more than 1.5 million people, the study showed that risk factors for heart disease such as elevated triglyceride and cholesterol levels (HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol) were genetically related to Alzheimer’s risk.

However, genes that contribute to other cardiovascular risk factors, like body mass index and Type-2 diabetes, did not seem to contribute to genetic risk for Alzheimer’s.

“The genes that influenced lipid metabolism were the ones that also were related to Alzheimer’s disease risk,” said Celeste M. Karch, Assistant Professor at the Washington University’s School of Medicine.

Thus, if the right genes and proteins could be targeted, it may be possible to lower the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in some people by managing their cholesterol and triglycerides, added Rahul S. Desikan, Assistant Professor at the UCSF.

For the study, published in the journal Acta Neuropathologica, the team identified points of DNA that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and also heighten the risk for Alzheimer’s disease.

"The question for us now is not how to eliminate cholesterol from the brain, but about how to control cholesterol's role in Alzheimer's disease through the regulation of its interaction with amyloid-beta," Vendruscolo said.
In Alzheimer’s disease, patients start losing memory, Pixabay

The team looked at differences in the DNA of people with factors that contribute to heart disease or Alzheimer’s disease and identified 90 points across the genome that were associated with risk for both diseases.

Their analysis confirmed that six of the 90 regions had very strong effects on Alzheimer’s and heightened blood lipid levels, including several within genes that had not previously been linked to dementia risk.

These included several points within the CELF1/MTCH2/SPI1 region on chromosome 11 that previously had been linked to the immune system.

Also Read- Longer Exposure to Honking Traffic Makes You Obese

The researchers confirmed their findings in a large genetic study of healthy adults by showing that these same risk factors were more common in people with a family history of Alzheimer’s, even though they had not themselves developed dementia or other symptoms such as memory loss.

“These results imply that cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s pathology co-occur because they are linked genetically. That is, if you carry this handful of gene variants, you may be at risk not only for heart disease but also for Alzheimer’s,” Desikan said. (IANS)