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Manufacturing polysilicon is the way for India’s solar aspirations

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By Bhupesh Verma

Delhi: The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), the biggest driving force for the growth of the solar industry, has helped the country to increase its capacity from a meager 18 MW in 2010 to 4 GW in 2015.

The BJP government announced a revised 100 GW target by 2022, a big jump from an earlier 20 GW. To achieve this, the country needs to maintain a cumulative annual growth rate (CAGR) of around 50 percent in annual installations. These targets provide a great opportunity for the Indian solar photovoltaic (PV) industry to evolve as a global leader in manufacturing.

Based on current prices, we estimate that the crystalline Silicon (c-Si) PV technology will contribute around 85-90 GW of the 100 GW target. In 2014, 35 GW of c-Si PV was installed globally, with China’s share being 9 GW.

The current global production about 300,000 tonnes per year and to manufacture 85 GW of c-Si PV cells, an estimated production of 450,000 tonnes of polysilicon will be required in the next seven years.

If India is to complete its goals, a vast demand can be predicted for c-Si PV panels and so for polysilicon in the next few years. China is a global leader in polysilicon manufacturing; itself imports polysilicon to meet its demand. This creates a major challenge in diverting a large share of the global production to India, therefore increasing module prices.

PV Manufacturing in India

The Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP) has examined the supply chain of PV that consists of the production of metallurgical grade Silicon (MG-Si), polysilicon, ingot and wafer, and cell and module assembly. Among these, India owns only cell and module manufacturing capabilities; other upstream supply chain components are missing. The question is: Given our huge demand from the 100 GW target, should India go in for domestic polysilicon and wafer manufacturing?

Polysilicon price trends

Polysilicon is the basic raw substance used in manufacturing c-Si PV cells as well as integrated-circuit chips for the semi-conductor industry. Prior to 2006-07, a majority of the polysilicon production was consumed mostly by the semi-conductor industry. In 2006-07, the economic boom was accompanied by a significant increase in the demand for polysilicon by the solar industry, which resulted in several manufacturing facilities being set up. The recession in late 2008, along with over-production from new factories, caused a slump in the demand for polysilicon and consequently, prices plummeted from a peak of $475/kg (Rs.32,500) to $20/kg.

The low prices forced manufacturers into reducing material and energy wastes to stay competitive. Therefore, processes that are more efficient started being developed to make the technology cheaper. This has made the polysilicon industry financially more attractive again in recent years. It is difficult to speculate how these prices will change in future, especially with the increase in demand from India. Therefore, there is a case for some domestic manufacturing capability to protect against volatility in prices.

Polysilicon Manufacturing and Challenges

Polysilicon making is an energy-consuming procedure (60-100 kWh/kg) and needs consistent power sources for continuous operations. High power tariff and unreliable power supply make polysilicon manufacturing challenging in India.

There are three ways to manufacture polysilicon: Siemens process, Fluidized Bed Reactor (FBR) process and Upgraded Metallurgical Grade (UMG) process, with the deceasing order of purity levels – 9N-11N, 6N-9N, and 5N respectively. Solar applications require higher purity levels than 6N pure silicon whereas semiconductor applications need higher purity than 9N. The Siemens process consumes a larger amount of energy as compared to FBR; hence, its cost of production is higher.

Some of the production challenges include handling of materials such as Silane, which is explosive in nature followed by significant heat losses in the reactors.

The current economy of scale suggests that a 24,000 TPA developed plant is ideal and will cost about Rs.5,500 crore. The technology used is the Siemens process, producing about 3-4 GW of c-Si cells annually.

Such a large capital investment in this sector is considered risky by even big investors. Moreover, interest rates in India are relatively higher than in other countries. This makes depreciation and interest rate major cost components (50 percent-70 percent) in polysilicon manufacturing. However, labour costs (skilled and unskilled) in India are lower as compared to other countries and this may reduce the cost of production by 5-10 percent.

The way forward

Given our ambitious solar targets, it is practical to create at least some domestic polysilicon manufacturing capability. Private industry could form an association to venture into domestic manufacturing. The government should support such initiatives and the industry through various incentives (tax holidays, duty exemption and the like) and facilitate the industry by giving special incentives in the modified special incentive package scheme (M-SIPS). The government can also make commitments to investors to provide low-cost finance and low-tariff power similar to China.

An assured market demand with long-term purchase agreements will boost the domestic manufacturing industry, along with the development of a manufacturing cluster – a dedicated R&D facility – for continuous research on new, mature, and disruptive technologies. Continuous updates in enabling policies pertaining to the polysilicon manufacturing industry will prove to be highly beneficial for the sector” growth as well. (IANS)(Bhupesh Verma and Ganeshprasad Pavaskar are with CSTEP and they can be contacted atbhupeshv@cstep.in and ganeshprasad@cstep.in. The views expressed are those of CSTEP)

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Microsoft Surface Pro Now Available In India

There is a full-size glass trackpad with five-finger multi-touch capabilities that allows for ultimate precision and the keyboard is wrapped in soft Alcantara material

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Global chip-maker Qualcomm Technologies and Microsoft have collaborated with leading retailers from across the world to offer new "always connected" Windows 10 PCs powered by the Qualcomm Snapdragon Mobile PC Platform. Wikimedia Commons
  • Microsoft released its Surface Pro in India
  • It is a high-resolution tablet with 12.3-inch touch-display
  • Customers can buy the Surface Pro from a number of retailers in India

Microsoft on Thursday announced its Surface Pro notebook and accessories are available in India. Surface Pro features a high-resolution 12.3-inch “PixelSense” touch display that supports the new Surface Pen 4.

The first generation, 2-in-1 detachable of the Microsoft Surface series — with a configuration of Intel Core m3, 128 GB SSD, 4GB RAM and Intel HD Graphics 615 — will cost Rs 64,999.

Microsoft introduces its Surface Pro Indian markets. Wikimedia Commons
Microsoft introduces its Surface Pro Indian markets. Wikimedia Commons

Customers can buy the device through more than 130 commercial resellers, the company said in a statement.

“We are delighted to announce the launch of Surface Pro in India and offer our consumers another superior device that will enable them create, study, work and play virtually anywhere,” said Vineet Durani, Director, Windows and Devices, Microsoft India.

Also Read: Microsoft Announces Indian Languages Support For e-mail Addresses

With a new hinge that adjusts to 165 degrees, users can now put the device into “Studio Mode”, thus, creating the optimal position to write or sketch.

It also has a tilt functionality that detects the angle of the Surface Pen to enable more natural shading.

At 8.5-mm thickness and weighing 767 grams, the notebook packs the in 7th-generation Intel Core processor with a fanless design.

Surface Pro has a battery life of 13.5 hours. Wikimedia Commons
Surface Pro has a battery life of 13.5 hours. Wikimedia Commons

 

Its battery supports up to 13.5 hours of life.

There is a full-size glass trackpad with five-finger multi-touch capabilities that allows for ultimate precision and the keyboard is wrapped in soft Alcantara material. IANS