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Medical negligence: Donated eyes found in Gwalior hospital’s garbage dump

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Gwalior: In a shocking incident of medical negligence in Madhya Pradesh, eyes donated for transplant were found in a garbage dump of the government J.A. Hospital on Thursday, officials said. The head of the eye department and two others have been suspended.

Gwalior resident Kishan Gambhir had donated the eyes of his mother after her death but was distraught after learning what befell his contribution.

Taking a serious view of the incident, hospital administrator K.K. Khare ordered the suspension of eye department’s head U.C. Tiwari, professor D.K. Shakya and another official.

As the news spread, many people who had donated eyes of their deceased relatives gathered at the hospital to protest. Some even demanded the eyes be given back to them.

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Why do Our Eyes Water when We Yawn?

Did you know there are three different types of tears that our eyes shed?

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why do our eyes water when we yawn
Teary-eyed after a yawn? We will tell you why! Pixabay

“Why do our eyes water when we yawn?” According to popular opinion, it is because you are tired and you miss your bed, which is why you begin to tear up. Don’t believe us? Well, you shouldn’t.

As much as that rationale seems right (on an emotional level), there is complete science behind the question ‘why do our eyes water when we yawn?’.
To understand this phenomenon, you will first need to understand tear-anatomy. Did you know there are three types of tears that your eyes shed?
1. Emotional Tears: Released upon experiencing intense emotions
2. Reflexive Tears: They serve to remove irritants and contaminants from the eyes like dust, dirt, etc.
3. Basal Tears: They are produced naturally throughout the day to lubricate the eyes.
 
But our question was :

Why do our eyes water when we yawn?

It is these basal tears that are responsible for the tears when you yawn.
Two components of the face are primarily responsible for our eyes to water when we yawn,
• Facial muscles
• Lacrimal glands
Lacrimal glands are glands that are placed beneath our upper eyelids just below the eyebrow bone.
They produce watery component to our eyes’ own natural tears throughout the day to keep the surface of our eyes coated and moisturized. Thus, our eyes remain moist throughout the day because of the functioning of lacrimal glands (This is also the reason why our eyes look glossy)
There are 43 muscles in the face itself that work together to help us emote. When we yawn, the facial muscles around our eyes begin to tighten.  This exerts pressure on the lacrimal glands and squeezes them a little.
In response, the lacrimal glands may release a little quantity of water which had been stored to release later.
Basal tears typically flow diagonally across the eyes and collect in a structure on the opposite corner of the eye called punctum.
But when we yawn, this water has no passage to get absorbed, and hence it falls out of the eyes, which is why it appears as if we are shedding tears.
Now if you shed a tear or two while yawning, don’t feel like it’s a ‘miss you’ call from your bed; it’s just a natural reaction to feeling tired.
And if the next time somebody asks you, ”why do our eyes water when we yawn?”, don’t shy away from sharing the knowledge!

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New Technology to Predict Asthma Attacks in Children: Researchers

A scientific research has lead to a new technology which can predict asthma attacks in kids. It will predict whether children or newborn are at a risk of an asthma attack

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Children with asthma uses inhaler to relieve some of the symptoms
Children with asthma uses inhaler to relieve some of the symptoms, Wikimedia
  • The new technology may help to non-invasively analyze lung sounds in children and newborn and tell if they are at a risk of an asthma attack
  • The researchers have analyzed 70 severely asthmatic children

Washington, July 27, 2017: Good news in the field of Medicine!  Recently, a new technology has been developed which may help to non-invasively predict children or newborn at risk of an asthma attack.

Asthma is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms like reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Its symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens and irritants, and by inhaling corticosteroids.  Asthma can also be classified as extrinsic that is atopic or intrinsic that is non-atopic. It is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

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Its diagnosis is usually made based on the pattern of symptoms and response to therapy over time. The prevalence of asthma has increased largely since the 1970s. As of 2010, 300 million people were affected worldwide. In 2009 asthma caused 250,000 deaths globally. Despite all this, with proper control of asthma with step down therapy (If the change is accomplished with the same antibiotic as that administered intravenously, then the change is labeled step-down therapy) result is generally good, mentioned ANI  report.

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According to researchers, the new technology may help to non-invasively analyze lung sounds in children and newborn and tell if they are at a risk of an asthma attack. The researchers have analyzed 70 severely asthmatic children.

The findings did indicate that the approach was considered useful to predict attack symptoms and for identification of children who are not showing any symptoms of asthma as yet can still have a high risk of asthma attack. The results of this research have been published in Respirology.

– prepared by Kritika Dua of NewsGram. Twitter @DKritika08


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Father of Surgery: Was Sushruta the First Plastic Surgeon in 600 B.C.?

One of the highlights of Sushruta's surgery is the operation of Rhinoplasty or the making of a new nose

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Sushruta. Image source: surgicaltreatmentsinayurveda.blogspot.com
  • ‘Sushruta Samhita’ which translates to Sushruta’s compendium describes the ancient tradition of surgery in Indian medicine
  • It not only contains the teaching regarding plastic surgery but also the composite teachings of the surgery and all the allied branches including midwifery
  • One of the highlights of Sushruta’s surgery is the operation of Rhinoplasty or the making of a new nose

The restoration, reconstruction, and alteration of the human body is not something that has popped up in the recent years. Cosmetic or aesthetic surgery, reconstructive surgery and the treatment of burns has its roots more than 4000-year-old in India, back to the Indus River Civilization . It is believed that plastic surgery originated in the Vedic period (5000 years B.C) and Sushruta Samhita, which is a part of Atharvaveda (one of the four Vedas) is believed to be the first surgical text.

‘Sushruta Samhita’ which translates to Sushruta’s compendium describes the ancient tradition of surgery in Indian medicine. This treatise contains detailed descriptions of teachings and practice of the great ancient surgeon Sushruta, mentioned ispub.com Website.

Considered  to be the most advanced compilation of surgical practices of its time, ‘Sushruta Samhita’ not only contains the teaching regarding plastic surgery but also the composite teachings of the surgery and all the allied branches including ‘midwifery’. Giving priority to the knowledge of both surgery and medicine, he compares a doctor not proficient in both of them to a bird with only one wing.

Sushruta said, “Anyone, who wishes to acquire a thorough knowledge of anatomy, must prepare a dead body and carefully observe and examine all its parts.” Accordingly, a body is to be submerged in water and allowed to decompose. Every stage of decomposition is meant to be studied carefully and examined, layer by layer. It is to be noted that during those times, dissection was performed without using instruments.

Sushruta Samhita. Image source: www.ancient-origins.net
Representational Image. Image source: www.ancient-origins.net

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‘Sushruta Samhita’ was first published in Europe by Hessler in Latin and by Muller in German, in the early 19th century. The first complete English translation was done by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna in three volumes in 1907 at Calcutta.

The Internet Scientific Publications Website mentioned that in the book ‘Sushruta Samhita’, the insight, accuracy, and detail of the surgical descriptions are most impressive. All the 184 chapters and the 1,120 conditions listed in them, include various medical explanations and treatment procedures ranging from injuries and illnesses relating to ageing and mental illness. The compendium of Sushruta includes many chapters on the training and practice of surgeons. The Sushruta Samhita also describes over 120 surgical instruments.

The ancient surgical science was known as Salya-tantra (surgical science) embraces all processes aiming at the removal of factors responsible for producing pain or misery to the body or mind. Salya (salya-surgical instrument) denotes broken parts of an arrow /other sharp weapons while tantra denotes maneuver. Sushruta has described surgery under eight heads Chedya (excision), Lekhya (scarification), Vedhya (puncturing), Esya (exploration), Ahrya (extraction), Vsraya (evacuation) and Sivya (Suturing).

Shushruta Statue, Haridwar Image Source: Wikipedia Commons
Shushruta Statue, Haridwar Image Source: Wikipedia Commons

One of the highlights of Sushruta’s surgery is the operation of Rhinoplasty or the making of a new nose. This grabbed the attention of the medical world and brought him fame as the originator of plastic surgery. The Indian Rhinoplasty today, is just a modification of the ancient Rhinoplasty described by Sushruta in 600 B.C. Even today pedicled forehead flap is referred to as the Indian flap.

Talking about Sushruta, the eminent surgeon Allen Oldfather Whipple (1881-1963), 20th century’s major innovator in pancreatic surgery said,  “All in all, Susruta must be considered the greatest surgeon of the pre-medieval period.”

The marvels and brilliance of Sushruta is recognised by many people across the globe. His texts are reefed even today by many great minds. He is regarded as the ‘Father of Indian Surgery’ and the ‘Father of Indian Plastic Surgery’ because of his numerous seminal contributions to the science and art of surgery in India.

– prepared by NewsGram team.

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