Saturday January 25, 2020

This New Method Can Improve The Development of New Medicines

By dialling the parameters in this new mathematical model, researchers can quickly understand how these different binding configurations are affected

0
//
Medicines
A New computational model will make research much more efficient and could accelerate the creation of new Medicines and therapies for many kinds of diseases. Pixabay

A new mathematical framework on molecular interactions will make it easier and more efficient for scientists to develop new medicines and other therapies for diseases such as cancer, HIV and autoimmune diseases, say reseachers.

The mathematical framework simulates the effects of the key parameters that control interactions between molecules that have multiple binding sites, as is the case for many medicines, the researchers said in a study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The researchers have planned to use this computational model to develop a web-based app that other researchers can use to speed the development of new therapies for diseases.

“The big advance with this study is that usually researchers use a trial-and-error experimental method in the lab for studying these kinds of molecular interactions, but here we developed a mathematical model where we know the parameters so we can make accurate predictions using a computer,” said Indian-origin researcher and study senior author Casim Sarkar from University of Minnesota in the US.

“This computational model will make research much more efficient and could accelerate the creation of new therapies for many kinds of diseases,” Sarkar added.

For the findings, the research team studied three main parameters of molecular interactions–binding strength of each site, rigidity of the linkages between the sites, and the size of the linkage arrays.

They looked at how these three parameters can be ‘dialled up’ or ‘dialled down’ to control how molecule chains with two or three binding sites interact with one another. The team then confirmed their model predictions in lab experiments. “At a fundamental level, many diseases can be traced to a molecule not binding correctly,” said study lead author Wesley Errington.

“By understanding how we can manipulate these ‘dials’ that control molecular behaviour, we have developed a new programming language that can be used to predict how molecules will bind,” Errington added.

Medicines
A new mathematical framework on molecular interactions will make it easier and more efficient for scientists to develop new medicines and other therapies for diseases such as cancer, HIV and autoimmune diseases, say reseachers. Pixabay

The need for a mathematical framework to decode this programming language is highlighted by the researchers’ finding that, even when the interacting molecule chains have just three binding sites each, there are a total of 78 unique binding configurations, most of which cannot be experimentally observed.

By dialling the parameters in this new mathematical model, researchers can quickly understand how these different binding configurations are affected, and tune them for a wide range of biological and medical applications. “We think we’ve hit on rules that are fundamental to all molecules, such as proteins, DNA, and medicines, and can be scaled up for more complex interactions,” said Errington.

ALSO READ: Tech Giant Samsung To Unveil New Galaxy Smartphones Soon

“It’s really a molecular signature that we can use to study and to engineer molecular systems. The sky is the limit with this approach,” Errington added. (IANS)

Next Story

Here’s Everything you Need to Know About Male Breast Cancer

Know about the rarely seen breast cancer in men

0
Breast Cancer
Male breast cancer is rarely seen and that is people are not aware about it. Pixabay

Breast cancer in men is rarely seen. It shares many similarities with cancer of the breast in women but there are some important differences too.

Male breast cancer represents between 0.5 and 1 per cent of all breast cancers diagnosed each year. Higher rates of male cancer in central and eastern Africa may be related to higher liver infectious diseases that lead to hypoestrogenism.

Dr Kumardeep Dutta Choudhury, Senior Consultant & Head of Department, Dept of Medical Oncology (IOSPL), Fortis Hospital, Noida, shares the facts you need to know about it.

Risk factors associated with breast cancer in men:

Genetics and family history

Breast Cancer
Higher rates of male breast cancer in central and eastern Africa may be related to higher liver infectious diseases that lead to hypoestrogenism. IANS

Family history of cancer in a first-degree relative is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among men. Approximately 15 to 20 per cent of men with breast cancer have a family history of the disease compared with only 7 per cent of the general male population.

The risk is higher with inherited BRCA2 rather than BRCA1 mutations. Other genes which have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in men are PTEN tumor suppressor gene (Cowden syndrome), tumor protein p53 (TP53; Li-Fraumeni syndrome), partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2), and mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome).

Alterations of the estrogen to androgen ratio

Excessive estrogen stimulation may be due to hormonal therapies (e.g., estrogen-containing compounds or testosterone), hepatic dysfunction, obesity, marijuana use, thyroid disease, or an inherited condition, such as Klinefelter syndrome may increase risk of male breast cancer.

Primary testicular conditions

Testicular conditions may increase risk of breast cancer in men include orchitis, undescended testes (cryptorchidism), and testicular injury.

PRESENTATION:

Male breast cancer has been diagnosed at a more advanced stage than female breast cancer, due to a lack of awareness. They generally present with a painless, firm mass that is usually subareolar, with nipple involvement in 40 to 50 percent of cases. The left breast is involved slightly more often than the right, and less than 1 percent of cases are bilateral. There may be associated skin changes, including nipple retraction, ulceration, or fixation of the mass to the skin or underlying tissues. Axillary nodes are typically palpable in advanced cases.

Breast Cancer
Excessive estrogen stimulation may be due to hormonal therapies can lead to breast cancer. Pixabay

Most histologic subtypes of that cancer seen in women are also present in men, men with breast cancer are rarely diagnosed with lobular carcinomas is due to lack of acini and lobules in the normal male breast, although these can be induced in the context of estrogenic stimulation.

TREATMENT:

Approach to treatment in men is same as that for women. However, role of breast conserving surgery is limited because of small volume of breast tissue. In hormone receptor-positive disease, we give adjuvant tamoxifen rather than an aromatase inhibitor (AI), because of insufficient evidence to support AI monotherapy for men. If there are contraindications to tamoxifen (e.g., hypercoagulable state), an AI with GnRHa may be administered. AIs do not reduce testicular production of estrogens, that’s why GnRHa is administered concurrently with AI. They are treated with mastectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.

SURVEILLANCE:

Limited data suggest these patients are at an increased risk of a contralateral breast cancer, but absolute risk is low. They are also at risk for secondary malignancies and 12.5 percent may develop a second primary cancer. The most common types were gastrointestinal, pancreas, non-melanoma skin, and prostate cancer.

Also Read- Follow These Tips to get Rid of Body Odour

PROGNOSIS:

Ten-year disease-specific survival rates for histologically negative nodes – 77 and 84 per cent, one to three positive nodes – 50 and 44 per cent and four or more histologically positive nodes – 24 and 14 per cent. (IANS)