New Delhi: India is a nation of varieties. With 22 officially recognized languages and a countless number of dialects, India flaunts a plethora of varied diversities.
A near 200 years of British rule undeniably corroded the rich heritage with language coming under severe attack of the colonial powers. However, the irony is that Indian languages continue to face the same treatment.
However, the irony is that Indian languages continue to face the same treatment even after the Britishers left.
What makes matters worse is the fact that the number of students opting for English medium schools is escalating by leaps and bounds. Notably, in the last five years, the number of students studying in English medium have doubled.
Surprisingly, it was in the Hindi bastion of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar that witnessed this exceptional growth.
Despite the government’s plan to implement measures to promote vernacular languages, English became the primary choice of the guardians.
The very idea that education in English would facilitate a job encouraged the parents to opt for the foreign language instead of the language that linked them to their very roots.
Unfortunately, the misconception that the chance of getting a job are much higher if a student comes from the English background has adversely affected our mother tongues.
Promotional campaigns by the government will not encourage people to study in their own language, but assurance of work and livelihood can lure people to read in their native language.
A paradigm change needs to be incorporated.
The inferiority complex associated with studying in local languages needs to be shunned. Rather, one must take pride in studying in the language which he uses for crying, laughing, calling his mother and expressing love.
The wrong notion that studying in English makes one smart pose a tough challenge before Indian languages. Carrying an English novel and flaunting it in public has become an endemic.
Strategic measures need to be implemented to revive our languages. It has to be fiercely promoted that even carrying a novel written in an Indian local language and reading it in a public place also make you look equally smart.
English-speaking Islamic State supporters are refusing to give up on the terror group’s ability to remain a force in Syria and Iraq, according to a new study that examined their behavior on the Telegram instant messaging service.
The report, “Encrypted Extremism: Inside the English-Speaking Islamic State Ecosystem on Telegram,” released Thursday by George Washington University’s Program on Extremism, looked at 636 pro-Islamic State channels and groups in the 16 months from June 2017 through October 2018.
It found that even as the terror group was losing ground in Syria and Iraq to U.S.-backed forces, and even as IS leadership was encouraging followers to start looking to progress in IS provinces elsewhere, English-speaking supporters turned to Telegram to reinforce their faith in the caliphate.
“These are supporters that like to fight uphill battles,” report co-author Bennet Clifford told VOA. “What supporters are trying to do when they’re engaging with this conversation is attempt to shift the narrative away from loss and provide justifications for it.”
At the same time, these English-speaking supporters sought to amplify their beliefs, supplementing official IS propaganda with user-generated content while also increasing the distribution of instructional material on how to carry out attacks.
“I think it’s part of an attempt in some cases to spin the narrative their way,” Clifford added.
Attraction of Telegram
IS supporters first started flocking to Telegram, an instant messaging service that promises speed and encryption for private communications, in 2015 as social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook began a crackdown aimed at Islamic State’s often violent and gory propaganda.
Since then, IS has been hooked by Telegram’s promise that it will not disclose user data to government officials and by the service’s ability to let supporters organize and share large files, including video.
“No other platforms appear to have developed the same balance of features, user-friendliness, and basic security that could warrant a new switch,” the report said.
That ease of use has long worried counterterrorism officials, who have watched as IS has used the online ecosystem to help plan and carry out the November 2015 attacks in Paris, attacks on a Christmas market in Berlin in December 2016 and the attack on the Reina nightclub in Istanbul just weeks later.
In those cases, the attackers appear to have been given instructions from IS officials in Syria and Iraq. But Telegram has given rise to several key English-speaking facilitators who have been operating on the periphery.
One of them, according to Clifford and co-author Helen Powell, was 36-year-old Karen Aizha Hamidon, who helped mobilize sympathizers from the United States to Singapore to join the terror group or its affiliates.
Hamidon, who was arrested by Philippine authorities in October 2017, has also been linked to efforts to establish an IS province in India.
Another key player, 34-year-old Ashraf al-Safoo, took a different approach before being arrested last October by the FBI in Chicago.
According to the U.S. Justice Department, al-Safoo was a key member of the Khattab Media Foundation, which used hacked social media accounts on platforms like Twitter to disseminate IS propaganda.
“Much of the propaganda created and distributed by Khattab promotes violent jihad on behalf of ISIS and ISIS’s media office,” the Justice Department said in a statement using a different acronym for the militant group.
While both Hamidon and al-Safoo are now in custody, showing the ability of law enforcement to penetrate their Telegram operations, others are likely to replace them because of the ongoing need of Islamic State’s English-speaking supporters to communicate and find larger audiences.
“While there are a number of disadvantages for Islamic State supporters in the use of Telegram from a security perspective they’ll continue to do it because their balance of outreach and operational security,” Clifford said. “There’s not another alternative at this point in time.” (VOA)