Tuesday December 11, 2018
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Misconceptions disrupting the revival of Indian languages

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New Delhi: India is a nation of varieties. With 22 officially recognized languages and a countless number of dialects, India flaunts a plethora of varied diversities.

A near 200 years of British rule undeniably corroded the rich heritage with language coming under severe attack of the colonial powers. However, the irony is that Indian languages continue to face the same treatment.

However, the irony is that Indian languages continue to face the same treatment even after the Britishers left.

What makes matters worse is the fact that the number of students opting for English medium schools is escalating by leaps and bounds. Notably, in the last five years, the number of students studying in English medium have doubled.

Surprisingly, it was in the Hindi bastion of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar that witnessed this exceptional growth.

Despite the government’s plan to implement measures to promote vernacular languages, English became the primary choice of the guardians.

The very idea that education in English would facilitate a job encouraged the parents to opt for the foreign language instead of the language that linked them to their very roots.

Unfortunately, the misconception that the chance of getting a job are much higher if a student comes from the English background has adversely affected our mother tongues.

Promotional campaigns by the government will not encourage people to study in their own language, but assurance of work and livelihood can lure people to read in their native language.

A paradigm change needs to be incorporated.

The inferiority complex associated with studying in local languages needs to be shunned. Rather, one must take pride in studying in the language which he uses for crying, laughing, calling his mother and expressing love.

The wrong notion that studying in English makes one smart pose a tough challenge before Indian languages. Carrying an English novel and flaunting it in public has become an endemic.

Strategic measures need to be implemented to revive our languages. It has to be fiercely promoted that even carrying a novel written in an Indian local language and reading it in a public place also make you look equally smart.

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English Words: How Words from Different Languages Find Their Way into English Dictionaries

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English words, English language, entries English dictionaries
English Words: How Words from Different Languages Find Their Way into English Dictionaries, Image: Wikimedia Commons.

Every year there are new English words that get incorporated in English language from other languages. When something fantastic catches your attention, what would you exclaim—jhakaas, bombat or semma? Is a cunning guy chaalu, chatri or shaana? Would you call your friend yaar, macha or bondhu?

The world of words is the most extraordinary of things as it gives expression to everything under the sun. Every single word that we use daily stands, often without our realisation, for something unique, something that the given word is used to give expression to.

But while most words are common in speech, there are several that have rarely been written down.

For 54-year-old lexicographer Peter Gilliver, words like “spuggy” and “netty” were perfectly ordinary as he had been familiar with them since his childhood, but he was surprised that neither of them had made their way into the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).

“I can recall some words which my grandmother used, like ‘spuggy’ meaning a sparrow, or ‘netty’ meaning a toilet, which were very familiar to me, but which are little used outside the northeast of England, where grandma lived,” Gilliver, the OED Associate Editor, told IANS in an email interview.

He said he brought these words with him as “just about everyone, who comes to work for the OED, brings some regional dialect words, which they learned when they were young, and which are not familiar to people from other regions”.

There are now entries in the dictionary for both words, which exhibits that their history can be traced back over 100 years, actually 200 years in the case of “netty”.

“I think there must be similar words in every region of the English-speaking world, which are very familiar to people living there but little known outside the region; we are glad to learn about such words, so that we can research them and consider adding them to the OED,” Gilliver said.

Closer home in India, almost everyone can certainly recall a moment when a word in their native language—the language they’ve known and used for years at home—baffles people from other parts of our own country.

Again, most such words are common in speech but some are rarely written down and so they can easily escape the attention of dictionary editors.

There are also many English words, commonly used in India, that haven’t found space in English dictionaries.

English words, new entries in English dictionaries
English Words: How Words from Different Languages Find Their Way into English Dictionaries, Image: Wikimedia Commons.

Angus Stevenson, OED’s Head of Content Development, said that their dictionaries of current English, in particular the online text, contains many hundreds of examples of Indian English as well, and many that derive from Hindi and other Indian languages.

“We are particularly interested in words such as ‘air-dash’, ‘batchmate’, and ‘calling bell’, which are genuine examples of an Indian variety of English, and would very much like to expand our coverage,” Stevenson said.

Yo may also like to read: If you look carefully at English you will see Sanskrit hidden everywhere: Jeffrey Armstrong

“We are planning projects to gather and define words from Indian and other under-represented areas of English—for example, we cover South African English but have not yet attempted to describe the English used in other parts of the African continent,” he added.

The first English dictionary goes back to at least the 16th century and the era of the Renaissance, which was a time, somewhat like our own, in which there was a huge amount of rapid change, and many new influences on the English language.

“The first Oxford dictionary of English was the OED, first published between 1884 and 1928.”

The OED claims to draw on expertise from all around the world. Their lexicographers are not confined to the UK, according to Judy Pearsall, Dictionaries Director at OED.

“The OED focuses on usage wherever in the world English is spoken and used. We have a large team of editors in the UK, but we also have consultants and colleagues from a much wider field and we rely on the whole team to ensure that our outlook is global and outward-facing, just like the English language itself,” she said.

With the rise of social media networking, usage of acronyms and abbreviations are also on the rise. What is still the need to have dictionary words?

“For us at Oxford Dictionaries, words are ‘dictionary words’, as long as they are used, and that includes abbreviations and acronyms,” said Pearsall.

Also readThe Indian influence on English Language

“The OED looks to include terms that originated on social media, such as LOL, just as much as any other words.

“We regard all of them as part of the language, and recognize that people use and need both,” she maintained. (IANS)