Sunday January 19, 2020

Mornings are worst air pollution times in Delhi and other major cities

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A view of Delhi: Wikimedia Commons

If you think mornings are the best time for outdoor exercise, you’re wrong.

Mornings experience the worst air pollution in four Indian cities, according to an analysis of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 data from IndiaSpend’s #Breathe air-quality sensors in Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai between March 15 to April 15 2016.

Delhi: Best air quality —4 pm

Mornings were the worst time, with PM 2.5 levels reaching as high as 108.16 µg/m3 at 7 am. Air quality gradually improved as the day wore on, registering the cleanest air at 4 pm. (22.84 µg/m3). Pollution levels then picked up through the night.

Delhi topped the list of the world’s most-polluted cities, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Bengaluru: Best air quality–midnight

The worst air was at 7 am, as PM 2.5 concentrations peaked at 61.54 micrograms per cubic metre of air (µg/m3). The air quality improved as the day wore on, worsening by evening at about 5 pm, reaching a late-evening high at 7 pm (57.60 µg/m3). The best air quality was registered around midnight, when PM 2.5 levels fell as low to 40.12 µg/m3.

Chennai: Best air quality—3 pm

The worst air was at 7 am, with PM 2.5 levels (61.54 µg/m3) reached their peak. Levels began to peak over the night and slide during the day, after 7 am. The best air quality was recorded in the afternoon, at 3 pm, with PM 2.5 levels reaching as low as 20.76 µg/m3.

 

Mumbai: Best air quality—5 pm

The worst hour for a Mumbaikar is 8 am, with PM 2.5 levels reaching 48.61 µg/m3; the air started to worsen after 5 am. The best air quality was registered at 5 pm, when PM 2.5 levels were 22.38 µg/m3.

Outdoor air pollution causes 670,000 deaths annually in India, according to a 2014 research paper from the Indian Institute of Management-Ahmedabad.

Air pollution has become a global concern with rising air pollution levels, as outdoor air pollution in cities and rural areas across the world estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths in 2012, according to the WHO.

Particulate matter is the term for particles found in the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. These are classified according to their diameter. Particles less than 2.5 µm (micrometres) are called PM 2.5. They are approximately 1/30th the average width of a human hair. Particles between 2.5 to 10 µm in diameter are called PM 10.

PM 10 and PM 2.5 include inhalable particles that are small enough to penetrate the thoracic region of the respiratory system. The health effects of inhalable PM are well documented, caused by exposure over both the short-term (hours, days) and long-term (months, years). They include: Respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity such as aggravation of asthma, respiratory symptoms, and an increase in hospital admissions; and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and from lung cancer.

There is good evidence of the effects of short-term exposure to PM 10 on respiratory health, but for mortality, and especially as a consequence of long-term exposure, PM 2.5 is a stronger risk factor than the coarse part of PM 10.

There is a close relationship between exposure to high concentrations of small particulates (PM 10 and PM 2.5) and increased mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular/respiratory diseases and cancer, both daily and over time, according to the WHO.

(In arrangement with IndiaSpend.org, a data-driven, non-profit, public interest journalism platform. The views expressed are those of India Spend. Feebback at respond@indiaspend.org)

–IANS/IndiaSpend

Next Story

I Fall in Love with India Every Time I Return Here: Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos

On Friday, Goyal clarified that government welcomes all kinds of investments into the country which are within the ambit of the law

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amazon, jeff bezos
Amazon.in arrived in India on June 5, 2013 and for world's top billionaire Jeff Bezos, has transformed the way the country buys and sells. VOA

Amazon Founder and CEO Jeff Bezos on Friday posted a note on the company’s e-commerce website Amazon India, saying “he falls in love with India every time he returns here”, a day after Commerce and Industry Minister Piyush Goyal snubbed him during a public event.

“I fall in love with India every time I return here. The boundless energy, innovation and grit of the Indian people always inspire me,” Bezos wrote in the letter while mentioning Amazon’s investment in the Indian economy and that the firm is aiming to create 10 lakh new jobs by 2025.

Bezos, in the letter, added that more than 550,000 small and medium businesses (SMBs) in India are using Amazon as a platform to offer millions of products.

The new expected jobs are on top of the 700,000 jobs Amazon has already created in the country since 2013.

Amazon, drones
In this Sept. 13, 2018, file photo Jeff Bezos, Amazon founder and CEO, speaks at The Economic Club of Washington’s Milestone Celebration in Washington. VOA

On Thursday, Goyal not only ticked off Bezos saying that they are not doing India a favour by investing a billion dollars, but also raised concerns if its losses were a result of predatory pricing and if Amazon and Flipkart were gaining entry into multi-brand retail by using loopholes.

Also Read: Tech Giant Apple Solves Location Privacy Issue with iPhone 11 in 2nd iOS 13.3.1 Beta

On Friday, Goyal clarified that government welcomes all kinds of investments into the country which are within the ambit of the law.

“We welcome all kinds of investments that follow the letter and spirit of the law. If some investment is outside the legal purview, appropriate action will be taken,” he told reporters. (IANS)